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I  InHiM    \A/  _i=^t;?r^AA/Nj 





A  Lawyer  of  the  Seattle  Bar,  Seattle,  U.  S.  A. 

Copwight    6p   John    IV.    Brown. 
May,  A.   D.,    1909. 



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ishecl  by  the  au 

thor.  May.    1909.  at  Seattle. 
of  Gate'h^ay  Printing  Co. 






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I  hf  knowlcdKc.  cxpluratiun  and  invasion  of  Alaska  durinK  the  pasl 
twelve  years  has  at  last  successfully  rrvealed  its  true  condition  and  future  pos- 

I  In-  fur-seekinR  Russians  made  no  accurate  maps  and  little  recorded  his- 
tory;  the  land-Kral)bin>^  Rnglish  explorers  and  navigators  only  cruised  along 
Its  shores,  naming  everything  in  sight ;  the  gold-seeking  Spanish  found  no  fable 
lounlains  or  glittering  gold  and  hardly  left  their  mark. 

All  made  extravagantly  pessimistic  or  mythical  reports  and  exaggerated 
guesses  or  prophecies. 

Thousands  of  adventurers,  searching  for  the  Northwest  Passage,  for  Sir 
John  Franklin,  for  fur.  fish  or  gold,  lost  their  lives  on  its  ocean  or  river  shores. 
Of  lliem  history  is  as  silent  and  unknown  as  their  graves. 

After  over  a  hundred  years  of  ownership,  the  Russians  at  the  time  they 
sold   it    (1867),  were  ready  to  abandon  it  as  worse  than  worthless. 

Mad  it  not  been  for  the  debt  of  gratitude  due  to  Russia  the  Congress 
and  people  of  the   United  Stales  would   never   have  acquiesced   in   its  purchase. 

For  the  fiirst  ten  years  the  United  States  made  only  a  formal  military 
show  of  authority,  with  no  government,  and  the  following  seven  years  aban- 
doned it,  providing  no  law,  officers  or  protection. 

No  reliable  general  history  has  yet  been  written  of  Alaska.  Numerous 
reports  and  histories  of  a  local  nature  have  been  written,  however,  mostly  by 
persons  officially  engaged  in  or  simply  passing  through  the  country;  and  while, 
as  a  rule,  they  are  perfectly  reliable  as  to  a  particular  locality  or  subject,  they 
are  very  unreliable  and  inaccurate  as  to  the  remainder  of  that  country. 

Authors  residing  at  Sitka  for  a  year  or  less,  or  making  a  tourist's  trip  on 
the  Inside  Passage,  or  doing  a  little  missionary  work  at  one  or  two  places,  or 
passing  down  the  ^'ukon  within  a  month  or  two,  or  spending  a  summer  at  Nome, 
are  very  numerous.  Their  tales  of  death,  starvation,  Arctic  winter,  pitch-dark, 
endless  nights,  insanity-making  mosquitoes,  bloodthirsty  Indians,  lands,  moun- 
tains and  rivers  of  ice  and  general  wail  of  calamity  and  terror,  followed  by 
novels  of  several  authors  so  full  of  exaggerations  and  untruthful  or  mythical 
statements,  have  created  a  false  impression  in  the  minds  of  the  people  which 
now  is  very  hard  to  correct. 

They  are  largely  to  blame  for  the  government's  tardy  and  scant  attention 
to  the  needs  and  laws  of  the  country,  for  the  delays  in  settling  it.  utilizing  its 
resources  and  wrongfully  giving  it  an  unjust  history  and  lamentably  untrue 

The  author  has  devoted  three  years  to  diligently  seeking  information,  and 
in  person  or  by  assistant  has  visited  or  investigated  as  far  as  possible  all  parts 
and  subjects  of  Alaska. 

The  important  matter  collected  would  till  a  half  dozen  large  volumes.  It 
all  seems  necessary.  We  have  nevertheless  summarized  it  for  the  purpose  of 
making  a  convenient  volume  for  the  student,  tourists  and  Alaska  miners,  as  well 
as  for  the  general  reading  public.  We  hope  two  years  later  to  present  a  more 
complete  history  of  Alaska  than  has  yet  been  published  from  the  data  for  which 
this  book  has  been  compiled.  Although  we  have  brought  this  publication  down 
to  1909,  events  so  rapidly  succeed  each  other  that  we  will  hardly  be  off^  the 
press  before  some  portions  will  seem  behind  the  times. 

We  hope  that  the  information  herein,  with  such  as  will  be  imparted 
through  the  Alaska-^'ukon-Pacific  Exposition  now  ready  to  open  at  Seattle, 
will  go  far  to  show  Alaska  in  a  true  light,  and  correct  the  errors  and  misappre- 
hensions so  generally  prevalent  now. 

Scatllc.  V.  S'.  A.  JOHN  W.   BROWN. 


Physically,  Alaska  consists  of  three  natural  divisions,  the  climate,  people, 
commerce,  vegetation,  etc.,  of  each  differing  much  from  the  others. 

First:  The  mountainous,  timber-covered  Pacific  Coast,  warmed  by  the 
Japanese  current,  sprinkled  by  incessant  rains,  peopled  by  a  Mongolian-Indian 
known  as  the  "Siwash"  and  rich  m  diversified  minerals  and  fishes. 

Second:  The  treeless  Aleutian  Islands  and  tundra-covered  slopes  of 
Bering  Sea  and  Arctic  Ocean,  chilled  with  long,  cold,  dark  weird  Arctic 
winters ;  poor  in  meneral ;  ice  bound  in  winter,  and  peopled  by  Mongolian- 
Aleuts  and  Mongolian-Esquimaux.  This  strip  of  land  extends  inland  about 
fifty  miles  from  the  Arctic  seas. 

Third:  The  great  interior,  with  its  rigorous  continental  climate,  scanty 
rainfall,  fertile  valleys,  big  rivers,  peopled  by  the  Redman  or  North  American 
Indian,  containing  no  trace  of  Mongolian  blood. 

The  timbers,  vegetation,  animals,  climates  and  natives  can  be  classed  with 
those  of  their  kinds  to  the  south  and  east,  differing  only  as  modified  by  latitude. 

We  will  divide  this  book  into  three  parts,  treating  each  ol  the  above  naluril 
divisions  in  the  order  stated. 




Sealtie  is  the  gateway,  iuicl  the  "Insidr  Passage"  ihe  highway,  to  Alaska; 
therefore  we  will  hegin  at  Seattle,  pointing  out  some  of  the  most  interesting 
places  and  events  on  the  way  from  Seattle  to  Dixon  Entrance  as  a  prelude. 

Early  in  the  summer  of  1908  my  wife  and  self  left  Seattle  on  a  cruise 
along  the  coast  and  among  the  islands  northward  to  Cross  Sound  and  Sitka, 
gathering  information  on  the  way  for  my  Alaska  books,  including  this  one. 

In  the  Alaska  boom  days  of  1897-98  every  kind  of  cheap,  questionable 
craft  was  employed  for  the  rush  to  the  North,  and  as  they  left  the  Seattle  docks 
they  whistled  long  and  loudly.  Friends  of  the  departing  waved  or  sobbed  a 
feeling  last  farewell. 

Not  so  now,  when  almost  every  boat  is  safe  and  comfortable,  and  many 
of  them  even  luxuriantly  equipped  for  the  Alaska  trade. 

The  arrival  and  departure  of  Alaska  boats  is  a  daily  occurrence  both 
winter  and  summer,  causing  no  more  excitement  than  the  coming  or  going  of 
one  of  our  transcontinental  trains. 

Jingle,  jingle,  jingle!  and  we  backed  away.  Jingle,  jingle!  we  stopped. 
Jingle!  we  started  northward  Irom  the  dock  at  Seattle  for  Alaska.  These 
little  signal  bells  from  the  captain  were  about  the  only  audible  sounds  heard  or 
made  on  our  large  boat,  bearing  two  hundred  passengers,  in  getting  her  off  for 
the  voyage. 

Swiftly  we  plowed  our  way  up  sound.  Occasionally  our  boat  gave  a 
short  toot  and  we  passed  on  our  port  side ;  or  two  toots,  and  we  passed  on  our 
starboard  side  an  approaching  steamer. 

In  the  pioneer  days  of  Mediterranean  commerce  the  steersman  sat  in  the 
stern  of  the  craft  and  held  in  his  hand  a  steerboard,  which  he  used  on  his  right 
to  steer  the  boat.  It  is  almost  impossible  for  a  "landlubber"  to  remember  which 
is  starboard  and  which  port,  but  if  he  can  recall  the  position  ot  the  steersman 
he  will   have   the  starboard  on   his   right  looking  forward. 

As  we  steamed  up  Puget  Sound  we  passed  several  suburban  villages,  then 
Everett  and  Bellingham,  cities  of  thirty  thousand  each,  where  some  of  the  largest 
lumber  and  shingle  mills  in  the  world  are  located,  and  Anacortes,  the  head- 
quarters for  many  large  fisheries,  to  our  right. 

On  our  port  side  was  the  home  land  of  Chief  Seattle  and  his  people,  a 
miserable  remnant  of  which  may  be  found  on  the  Port  Madison  Reserve  near 
by.  A  little  farther  westward  and  across  Hood's  Canal  is  Jimmicum  Valley, 
in  which  lived  the  Jimmicum  tribe,  once  powerful,  of  which  but  one  full-blood 
now  survives.  Mr.  Bishop,  a  member  of  the  Legislature  of  the  State  of  Wash- 
ington for  years,  lives  in  and  owns  much  of  the  fertile  valley.  He  is  an  intelligent 
and  wealthy  man.  His  mother  was  one  of  these  natives,  whom  his  father,  a 
white  man.  married  at  a  time  when  all  the  whites  here  could  be  counted  on  your 

In  the  summer  ol  1832  the  first  settlers  took  up  donation  land  claims  where 
Seattle  now  stands,  living  meanwhile  at  .Alki  Point. 

Across  the  Sound,  about  twenty  miles  away,  lived  Chief  Seattle  with  his 
daughter  Angeline  (ever  the  friends  of  the  whites),  in  perhaps  the  largest  tribe 
house  ever  erected  by  Indians  on  the  Coast,  being  about  a  fifth  of  a  mile  long. 

The  next  year  a  sawmill  was  erected  and  Seattle  platted;  the  next  a  post- 
office  was  established,  and  the  third  a  church  erected.  From  that  time  to  this 
the  Seattle  spirit  has  never  left  the  city,  and  instead  of  adding  annual  improve- 
ments, they  became  semi-annual,  monthly,  weekly  and  daily,  until  now  the  city 
doubles  m  population  and  wealth  about  every  three  years.  The  coming  census 
will  show  that  it  has  made  greater  progress  than  any  other  city  in  the  United 
States,  and  that  it  now  has  a  quarter  million  population  or  more. 

There  were  troubles  in  the  early  days,  however.  The  Indians,  apparently 
friendly,  secretly  conspired  with  the  Klikitats  from  over  the  mountains  against 
the  whites,  and  made  a  concerted  attack,  ending  in  a  retreat  after  they  were 
shelled  by  the  Decatur  then  lying  in  the  harbor — 1856. 

This  was  the  first  and  last  stand  of  the  Siwash;  he  went  back  to  digging 
clams,  and  is  digging  clams  still.  When  the  sloop  of  war  Decatur  hailed  shot 
and  canister  among  the  trees  on  the  first  hill  (now  the  very  center  of  the  city), 
among  the  Klikitats,  they  could  not  understand  the  phenomenom  and  fled  in 
terror.  It  is  said  they  returned  home  on  a  run,  without  stopping  to  camp.  They 
never  formed  any  more  conspiracies  with  the  Siwash  to  fight  the  whites. 

In  later  years  came  the  fire  which  destroyed  the  business  part  of  the  city. 
Then  the  financial  panic,  which  checked  its  growth.  But  out  of  every  calamity 
and  vicissitude  came  a  more  vigorous  development. 

Half  of  the  mining  population  of  Alaska  live,  or  at  least  winter,  in  Seattle. 
A  large  part  of  the  gold  is  invested  here,  and  the  head  office  of  every  large 
Alaskan  industry  is  here. 

On  March  8,  1791,  officers  of  the  British  crown  commissioned  and 
instructed  Captain  George  Vancouver  to  survey  the  western  coast  of  America 
from  30  degrees  north  latitude  northward.  In  1  792  he  explored  and  named 
about  every  part  of  Puget  Sound.  (See  "Vancouver's  Discovery  of  Puget 
Sound,"  by  Professor  Meany  of  University  of  Washington;  "Pioneer  Days  on 
Puget  Sound,"  by  Arthur  A.  Denny,  and  "Indian  War  of  1855-56,"  by  Alice 

At  Port  Townsend  the  boys  had  a  juvenile  attack  ol  the  Seattle  Spirit. 
Although  they  were  not  allowed  to  come  aboard,  they  did  a  good  business  in 
gum,  lemons,  etc.,  by  means  of  a  net  at  the  end  of  a  long  pole.  We  took  on  a 
good  supply  for  our  feminine  pedagogues,  and  expected  cases  of  seasickness. 

Port  Townsend  is  the  Port  of  Entry,  and  our  townsman.  Fred  Harper, 
the  Collector  of  Customs.  The  custom  receipts  of  but  few  ports  in  the  United 
States  are  larger. 

For  1908  the  customs  officer  reports  that  Alaska  exported  to  the  Lnited 
States  (including  Klondike)  $21,087,798  in  gold  and  silver  (almost  two  mil- 
lion more  than  the  year  before).  At  the  same  time  Alaska  exported  to  the 
United  States  through  this  district  $12,255,255,  practically  all  fish  and  fur. 
During  the  same  time,  through  this  district,  we  exported  to  Alaska  $18,000,000. 
mostly  food  and  machinery.  These  figures  will  serve  to  give  some  idea  of  the 
immense  Alaska  trade  on  Puget  Sound  now  annually.  I  he  total  gold  of  .Alaska 
and  the  Klondike  to  dale  approximates  $250, 000, 000. 

Port  Townsend  has  a  population  of  about  7,000.  and  2.000  soldiers  are 
quartered  at  Forts  Warden.  Casey  and  Flagler  nearby. 

One  of  the  largest  and  best  blocks  of  standing  timber  in  the  United  States 
occupies  the  Olympic  Peninsula,  toward  which  several  large  railroads  are  now 
builcling.  The  rainfall  on  the  north  side  of  the  Olympic  Mountains  is  light, 
and  the  climate  is  almost  perfect  all  the  year. 

Formidable  defenses  and  powerful  modern  guns  face  every  side  ol  the 
Strait  of  Juan  de  Fuca  (named  in  honor  of  its  supposed  discoverer,  Juan  de 
Fuca,  a  Greek,  in  1592,  just  two  hundred  years  ahead  of  Vancouver).  The 
combined  navies  of  the  world  could  not  force  their  way  past  these  forts ;    neither 

could  an  tiicmy  rrilcr  I'uk«-1  .Sound  without  rominK  within  their  range.  All  the 
forts  can  be  commanded  from  either  one  hy  table,  phone,  telegraph,  signal  or 
wireless.  I  he  waters  are  so  charted  that  a  gunner  can  fire  accurately  in  fog 
or  at  an  unseen  enemy.  The  big  guns  disappear  behind  impenetrable  walls  of 
stone,  earth  and  roiu  rcle.  where  they  (  ;im  Ix-  reloaded  and  protected  after  they 
have  been  discharged. 

Behind  Port  lownsend  is  the  detention  island,  on  the  tops  of  the  hills  and 
forts  are  wireless  instruments  for  commercial  and  government  use,  and  out  at 
the  entrance  of  the  straits  is  I'atloosh  Island,  with  its  wire  and  wireless  telegraphs, 
busy  informing  the  world  in  i^enera!  and  government  in  particular  of  all  craft 
going  in  and  coming  out  of  this  doorway  to  the  commercial  ports  of  the  North- 
west. I  his  old  tide-washed,  storm-beaten  lattoosh  Island  is  the  advance  guard. 
Its  honeycombed,  water-made  caves  were  homes,  graves  or  hiding  places  for 
the  natives  hundreds  of  years  ago,  and  will  bear  their  marks  long  after  they  have 
ceased  to  exist.  Some  time  it  may  be  necessary  to  strengthen  the  island  w^ith 

The  long  Cascade  Range  to  the  East,  and  Olympic  Group  to  the  West, 
sitting  in  an  evergreen  forest  primeval;  the  snow-robed,  sky-piercing  Ranier  to 
the  South  and  Baker  in  the  North;  the  beautiful  brown,  rugged  San  Juan 
Islands  at  the  East  end  of  the  straits  and  boundless  Pacific  at  the  West;  the 
blue  waters  of  the  Sound,  framed  at  its  egdes  with  the  white  spray  of  the  breakers 
and  on  the  banks  with  the  dark  green  ferns,  fir  and  cedar,  makes  one  ofthe  most 
beautiful  pictures  of  nature  to  be  found  on  the  face  of  the  earth. 

The  Canadian  steamers  going  to  the  States  and  ours  going  to  Canada 
pass  and  repass  with  friendly  salutes.  These,  mingling  with  others  of  all  nations, 
make  this  a  busy  marine  thoroughfare. 

In  the  afternon  and  evening  of  the  first  day  out.  with  the  aid  of  glasses, 
we  recognized  the  Parliament  Buildings,  C.  P.  R.  Hotel  and  Lord  Dunsmuir 
Castle  at  Victoria.  The  day  was  still  light  when  we  passed  Vancouver,  near 
which  the  Eraser  River  empties.  On  September  30,  1 908,  the  citizens  of  New- 
Westminster  erected  a  monument  to  Simon  Eraser,  who  discovered  the  river  one 
hundred  years  before. 

Alexander  McKenzie  crossed  the  upper  waters  of  this  river  in  I  793  on 
his  way  across  the  continent,  but  he  thought  it  was,  and  reported  it  to  be.  the 

I  believe  this  river  produces  more  good  commercial  salmon  than  any  other 
in  the  world.  There  are  dozens  of  salmon  rivers  and  creeks  on  this  Coast  and 
in  Alaska,  but  this  one  should  bear  the  name. 

I  he  Strait  of  de  Euca  was  a  little  rough  until  after  -ve  passed  behind 
Vancouver  Island,  although  no  cases  of  seasickness  developed.  However,  a  few- 
timid  ones  from  the  interior  of  the  States  went  to  bed.  sucked  lemons,  shut  their 
eyes  and  waited  in  vain  for  the  feeling  to  come,  and  at  times  declared  that  they 
felt  a  certain  internal  uneasiness  never  felt  before,  but  at  last  were  half  ashamed 
and  half  disappointed. 

I  he  day  was  a  perfect  one.  Ol  all  the  grandeur  of  this  matchless  pano- 
rama. Mount  Baker  at  one  end  and  Mount  Rainier  at  the  other  were  the  grandest 
and  most  awe  producing,  not  even  excepting  the  blue,  boundless  ocean. 

I  he  sunset  was  typically  western,  golden  and  beautiful;  the  night  clear 
and  warm:  the  water  smooth,  absorbing  the  colors  of  the  sky  and  reflecting  the 
trees  from  the  bank;  the  songs  and  laughter  had  died  down;  the  blanket-robed 
tourists  had  left  the  upper  deck;  lunch  was  over,  and  but  few-  persons  were  to 
be  seen  in  the  cabins  when  we  retired  to  our  stateroom  at  the  close  of  the  first  day. 
Nothing  was  heard  but  the  swish  of  the  water  at  the  prow,  and  the  chug,  chug, 
chug  of  the  propeller  aft.      Everything  was  conducive  to  sound,  restful  slumber. 


We  lay  in  our  berth  and  mused:  Is  this  the  land  and  these  the  waters  of 
Maldonado,  Fuca,  Fonte,  Gali,  Drake  and  others,  whose  mythical  reports  and 
claims  of  discoveries  are  seriously  questioned?  Are  these  poor,  dirty  Siwashes 
the  natives  Fuca  reported  here  as  being  "dressed  in  skins,  rich  with  gold,  silver, 
pearls,  etc."?  How  long  have  these  natives  inhabited  this  Coast?  They  are 
not  red  men;  they  do  not  belong  to  the  family  of  Indians  eastward.  Where 
did  they  origmate?  How  long  since  these  titanic  cloud-capped  peaks  were 
smokmg  volcanoes? 

It  was  an  even  hundred  years  from  the  discovery  of  America  by  Columbus 
to  Fuca's  purported  discovery  of  the  Straits,  and  another  even  two  hundred  years 
(I  792)  until  the  discovery  of  the  Puget  Sound  by  Vancouver,  and  yet  another 
hundrded  years  before  it  was  settled  by  white  men.  If  the  early  explorers  left 
monuments  they  have  never  been  found.  The  natives  have  no  tradition  of  them, 
and  students  of  history  will  always  question  their  fabulous  claims.  While  John 
Mears  and  George  Vancouver  doubted  Fuca's  discoveries,  they  nevertheless 
honored  them  by  giving  the  strait  his  name. 

Steam  and  gases  still  arise  from  the  craters  of  Mount  Baker  and  the  tem- 
perature, taken  m  1908,  in  the  crater  of  Mount  Rainier  registered  109  degrees. 
Every  year  new  islands  and  volcanoes  are  born  among  the  Aleutian  Islands. 
Two  years  ago  the  streets  of  Nome  were  covered  with  volcanic  ashes;  lava  in 
recent  years  flowed  freely  in  the  gorges  of  the  Naas  River,  so  that  these  great 
peaks  not  many  centuries  in  the  past  were  violent  vents  for  a  cooling  range. 
Extensive  mounds,  not  unlike  those  of  the  Mound  Builders,  are  well  known  on 
Vancouver  Island,  mutely  testifying  to  a  pre-histonc  man.  Last  summer  a  stone 
ax  was  found  under  a  tree  on  Hood's  Canal ;  the  growth  of  the  tree  showed  over 
six  hundred  years.  Other  implements  have  been  found  among  the  shell  beds 
of  the  San  Juan  Islands  and  elsewhere,  so  placed  as  to  indicate  that  they  had 
been  there  a  thousand  years  or  more.  It  is  very  evident  that  when  the  people 
of  Europe  were  still  savages  the  Siwash,  or  their  Mongolian  ancestors,  made 
their  home  within  view  of  the  grandest  and  loftiest  mountain  in  the  United 
States,  Mount  Rainier. 

Mexico  has  its  Popocatepetl,  Naples  its  Vesuvius,  California  its  Shasta, 
and  Japan  its  Fusiyama,  but  Puget  Sound  has  its  Rainier,  the  noblest  of  them  all. 

In  passing  up  Georgia  Gulf  one  sees  here  and  there  a  farm,  cannerv, 
tumble-down  Indian  village  or  settlement,  but  always  an  unbroken  forest  of  fir 
and  hemlock. 


Vancouver  Island,  rich  with  the  splendid  coals  of  Nanaimo,  covered  with 
a  forest  of  good  timber,  surrounded  with  seas  of  fish,  containing  many  valuable 
mines,  several  important  towns,  and  dotted  with  farms  in  the  valleys,  is  one  of 
the  most  precious  gems  of  British  ownership. 

It  must  now  have  a  population  of  about  75,000,  including  10,000  Indians 
of  the  usual  Siwash   kind,   living   the  usual   Siwash   lilc. 

Among  the  residents  of  this  island  are  many  "remittance  men,"  who  draw 
their  periodical  allowance  and  live  to  spend  it.  Of  all  the  islands  on  earth,  if 
I  were  banished  from  home,  give  me  this  banishment  land  for  remittance  men. 
Land,  sea,  mountains,  forests,  mines,  commerce,  parliament,  society,  ideal  climate, 
hunting  and  every  facility  for  amusement  and  comfort  is  there.  Ella  Higgenson. 
in  her  recent  book  on  Alaska,  very  pathetically  writes  of  a  "remittance  woman  ' 
as  follows:  "It  is  said  that  the  woman  who  should  have  one  day  been  the  Queen 
of  England  lived  near  the  City  of  Vancouver  a  few  years  ago." 

Before  the  death  of  his  elder  brother,  the  Prince  of  Wales  passionately 
loved  the  young  and  beautiful  daughter  of  Admiral  Seymour.  His  infatuation 
was   returned,   and  so  desperately  did   the  young  couple  plead   with   the  present 

kiiiK  .111(1  iIh-  .il  l.isl  [\\r  \ni\Hc  was  prrrnillrd  to  conlrati  a  mor- 
Xanatu  marriaK*-.  I  lir  undcrslaiiclinK  and  a«r«Tmcnt  was  ihat  should  the  prince 
ever  Ijcfomc  the  hnr  to  th»-  throne  of  England  neither  he  nor  his  wife  would 
oppose  the  annulment  of  the  marriage.  I'hcre  was  only  one  brief  year  of  happi- 
ness, when  the  elder  brother  of  the  prince  died,  and  the  latler's  marriage  to  the 
Princess  May  was  demanded.  No  murmur  of  romplaml  was  ever  heard  from 
the  unhappy  morganatic  wife  nor  from  the  royal  husband,  and  when  the  latter  s 
marriage  was  solemnized,  it  was  boldly  announced  that  no  bar  to  the  union 

Here,  in  the  western  solitude,  lived  lor  several  years  the  veriest  remillance 
woman — the  girl  who  should  now,  by  the  right  of  love  and  honor,  be  the 
Princess  of  Wales,  and  whose  infant  daughter  should  have  been  the  heir  to  the 

1  o  Vancouver,  a  few  years  ago,  came  with  his  Princess  the  Prince  of 
Wales.  The  city  was  gay  with  flags  and  flowers,  throbbing  with  music  and 
filled  with  joyous  and  welcoming  people.  Somewhere,  hidden  among  those  sway- 
ing throngs,  did  a  pale  young  woman,  holding  a  child  by  the  hand,  gaze  for 
the  last  time  upon  the  man  she  loved  and  upon  the  woman  who  had  taken  her 
place.  And  did  her  long  tortured  heart  in  that  hour  finally  breaks*  It  is  said 
she  died  within  a  twelvemonth." 
.  I  his  island  is  to  Canadian  Pacific  what  Baronov  Island  is  to  Alaska,  and 

^■^■"^    Nootka,  on  its  western  shore,  is  of  as  much  historical  renown  as  ^)itka. 

Perez  landed  at  Nootka  August  9.  I  774,  and  named  it  San  Lorenzo. 
Captain  Cook,  in  1  778,  named  it  King  George  Sound.  Many  other  explorers 
stopped  at  this  point,  and  rival  trading  companies  sought  the  business.  In  I  788- 
89  a  Spaniard.  Martinez,  took  exclusive  possession  for  his  country,  and  when  a 
few  months  later  James  Colnet  arrived  and  asserted  British  right  he  was  arrested 
by  Martinez  and  sent  a  prisoner  to  Mexico.  This  act  came  very  near  making 
serious  trouble.  One  author  says:  "A  few  sheds  erected  on  the  coast,  a  miser- 
able baston  defended  by  swivel  guns,  and  a  few  cabbages  planted  within  an 
inclosure,  came  very  near  causing  war  between  Spain  and  England."  Other 
Spanish  boats  were  hurried  north,  but  the  strong  navy  of  England  at  home  and 
the  refusal  of  George  Washington,  President  of  the  United  States,  to  assist 
Spain  were  the  primary  causes  of  inducement  inducing  Spain  to  yield.  An 
agreement  to  this  effect  was  signed  at  Madrid  in  I  790.  known  as  the  "Nootka 
Convention."  George  Vancouver  was  directed  to  proceed  to  Nootka  and  accept 
the  surrender  of  these  sheds  and  cabbages  and  to  survey  these  coasts,  which  he 
^  did,  and  Spanish  names  and  claims  gave  way  to  those  of  England  through  Van- 

The  Island  ol  Quadra  became  the  Island  of  Quadra  and  Vancouver,  and 
later  Quadra  was  omitted.  Our  own  Captain  Robert  Gray  was  cruising  around 
in  these  waters  during  this  conflict.  The  Spanish-English  dispute  ended  on  the 
Pacific  with  a  conlerence  bot\veen  Quadra  and  \  ancouver  at  Nootka.  The 
\X  ashington  University  State  Historical  Society,  through  its  secretary.  Prof.  Ed- 
mond  S.  Meany,  erected  a  monument  August  23,  1903.  on  a  small  rocky  island 
in  the  bay,  on  which  they  inscribed  the  following:  "Vancouver  and  Quadra  met 
here  in  August,  I  792,  under  the  treatv  between  Spain  and  Great  Britain  of 
October,    1790." 

Now  Nootka,  like  .'Xlert  Bay  and  other  Indian  villages  near  by,  is  a  brush- 
covered,  decaying  reminiscent  of  a  century  and  a  half  ago. 

Georgia  Gulf,  sometimes  named  Georgia  Bay  or  Strait,  is  almost  a  sea 
and  is  more  like  a  strait  than  a  gulf.  The  island  is  about  300  miles  long,  and 
between  it  and  the  land  pass  the  coast  vessels  on  the  inside  passage.  In  fact  it 
is  so  long  that  many  tourists  think  it  is  the  entire  inside  passage. 


The  mineral  and  geological  statements  hereafter  made  concerning  the  Coast 
range  will  apply  to  all  the  range  south  of  Dixon's  Entrance.  However,  there 
is  a  wonderfully  productive  mineral  belt  here.  The  coal  of  Nanaimo  and  the 
mines  at  that  place  are  such  factors  in  this  country  that  we  can  hardly  believe 
what  we  see  there. 

These  mines  are  hundreds  of  feet  under  the  sea,  producing  yearly  300,000 
tons,  and  have  produced  7,000,000  tons,  nearly  all  of  a  superior  grade  of 
bituminous  coal.  Cable,  electric,  horse  and  mule  cars  on  more  than  a  hundred 
miles  of  track,  run  systematically  to  all  prats  of  the  mine.  The  most  modern 
devices  for  protection  of  the  mines  and  miners  against  explosion,  fire  and  caving 
walls  are  carried  into  rigid  effect.  The  coal  is  divided  by  a  wall  of  rock,  on 
one  side  is  the  best  of  bituminous,  on  the  other  a  lighter  coal. 

In  the  early  times  coal  was  discovered  at  Fort  Rupert,  on  the  northernmost 
point  of  Vancouver  Island,  and  worked  by  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  but  it  is 
soft  and  not  of  much  value.  The  discovery  is  said  to  have  been  made  by  an 
Indian  while  trying  to  roast  some  venison.  He  gathered  some  of  the  black  rock 
and  placed  it  around  his  stick  fire  to  keep  the  heat  near  the  venison,  when  to  his 
surprise  the  rock  burned.  This  made  him  curious  and  he  presented  some  of  the 
black  rock  to  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  men.  who  soon  took  charge  of  the  coal 
found  for  their  company. 

The  history  of  the  placer  gold  of  the  Fraser  River  and  the  stampede  to  that 
country  years  ago.  and  then  on  to  the  Cassiar  and  Atlin  districts,  furnish  material 
for  a  large  volume,  and  constitute  the  connecting  link,  intervening  time  and 
detailed  prospecting  between  the  days  of  the  California  '49ers  and  the  Klondike 
rush  of  97-8. 

These  shifting,  homeless  wanderers,  like  flocks  of  sheep,  invade  one  district 
after  another,  leaving  no  home,  improvement,  town,  government  or  hardly  an 
account  as  they  pass  on.     Whatever  they  find  of  value  they  take  with  them. 

Many  of  these  districts  are  yet  rich  in  placer,  and  little  or  no  attempt  has 
ever  been  made  to  locate  or  work  the  quartz. 


Queen  Charlotte  Island  and  the  islands  of  Hecta  Straits  add  but  little 
to  the  mineral  wealth  of  Canada.  Likewise  the  timber,  as  it  becomes  softer, 
and  I  am  clearly  convinced  that  valuable  timber  can  hardly  be  lound  north  of 
Vancouver  Island.  But  fish,  millions  of  them,  will  afTord  occupation  lor  all 
the  natives  and  many  Orientals  and  whites  for  centuries,  and  with  the  Alaskan 
waters  will  furnish  half  the  export  fish  for  the  United  States  and  a  large  portion 
for  domestic  use  in  the  United  States  and  Canada. 

As  we  passed  from  behind  the  island  we  came  for  the  first  time  into  the 
real  swells  of  the  ocean.  We  had  heard  and  read  about  rough  seas  in  Queen 
Charlotte  Sound,  but  the  spirit  of  the  matter  did  not  come  over  us  fully  until 
we  saw  the  chairs,  furniture,  dishes,  tourists  and  all  kinds  ol  loose  articles  mixing 
without  introduction.  We  said  it  must  be  a  bad  sea.  It  was.  1  he  swells  were 
large.      We  both  rolled  and  pitched,  and  some  of  us  did  other  things. 

But  oh!  oh!  oh!  the  swooning  of  the  ship.  It  went  so  far  down,  and 
breakfast  seemed  to  strive  to  come  as  far  up  each  time.  1  rue.  the  remedies  bore 
down  hard,  but  they  were  too  light,  and  with  some  other  things  came  on  deck 
or  over  the  rail.      It  was  the  only  seasickness  on  the  trip,  and  but  few  cases  of  it. 

We  soon  passed  into  Hecta  Strait,  named  after  Captain  Bruno  Hecta.  a 
Spaniard,  who  explored  on  the  coast  in  1775.  Queen  Charlotte  Island  again 
shut  out  the  swells  of  the  ocean,  about  half  of  the  tourists  took  lunch  and  all 
were  able  to  surround  the  dinner  table  that  evening. 

Whale  are  very  numerous  in  these  waters,  likewise  porpoise,  the  latter 
often  playing  about  the  prow  ol  ihc  boat,  ,iiul  llic  lornier  somedmos  coming 
very  near. 



I  hen-  Is  ,1  wli.ilc  (islicrv  .il  Iviv.  nil  llic  soudi  I'lui  ol  .Aclmirnlty  Island. 
L.ilci  III  tlu"  sj-ason  \vr  look  on  hoard  one  of  (lie  whalers.  lie  said  the  whale 
wcr«'  often  as  much  as  seventy-five  feel  Ioiik.  and  worth  ahout  five  hundred  dollars 
each  lor  oil.  baleen,  dessicaled  hone  ferlili/er  and  many  other  marketable 
products,  and  from  a  fish  once  thouKht  to  he  profitless. 

I  hat  the  mother  whale  gives  birth  lo  her  calf  al  sea,  which  is  then  eight 
or  ten  feel  long  and  fairly  capable  of  looking  out  for  itself.  I  he  whale  is  like 
a  monster  boat  with  a  small  engine.  It  is  unable  to  protect  itself  from  the 
smaller  fish,  escape  from  man  or  even  dislodge  the  barnacles  that  grow  upon  its 
body.  I  hey  are  supposed  to  blow  six  limes  before  sounding  (or  diving).  The 
whaler  approaches  in  his  launch  and  fires  a  bomb-pointed  harpoon  from  a  cannon 
on  the  prow.  1  he  weapon  sinks  deep  and  the  bomb  explodes  in  five  seconds, 
spreading  out  the  barbs  and  making  a  fatal  wound.  In  its  death  struggles  it 
may  draw  the  boat  a  mile.  After  death  it  is  towed  m  or  fastened  to  a  buoy,  or 
inflated  with  air  and  later  picked  up  again  and  towed  to  the  station. 

The  1908  catch  at  this  station  was  over  200,  and  at  Vancouver  600. 
1  he  latler's  catch  was  given  as  241  humpbacks,  66  sulphur  bottoms,  10  finbacks 
and  one  sperm  whale.  Of  course,  such  luck  does  not  apply  to  the  Arctic  whaler, 
his  average  being  about  three  per  boat  each  year,  but  his  fish  produces  the  whale- 
bone of  commerce,  worth  $5  per  pound,  and  one  whale  will  aggregate  several 
thousand  dollars  while  these  do  not. 

The  whaling  industry  is  reviving,  not  the  old  kind,  however.  Now  there 
is  no  danger  for  the  hunter  and  no  escape  for  the  fish.  At  the  rate  of  a  thousand 
per  year  it  will  not  be  long  until  the  sight  of  a  whale  will  be  as  unusual  as  of 
a  buffalo  or  sea  otter.  The  commercial  fever  has  no  more  respect  for  these 
leviathans  of  the  deep  than  it  has  for  the  Niagara.  It  rushes  to  every  part  of 
this  shore,  probing  the  mountains  for  mineral,  hunting  the  woods  for  game,  har- 
nessing the  rivers,  defacing  the  God-made  pictures  of  nature,  defiling  the  native 
youth  with  rum.  and  now  depleting  the  sea  of  its  innocent  harmless  whale. 


Sea  otter  were  plentiful  near  the  Island  of  De  la  Marguerite,  now  Queen 
Charlotte  Island,  and  here  came  Perez,  in  I  774,  Hecta,  in  I  775.  Martinez, 
in  I  778,  and  many  others — French,  Dutch,  Bostonians,  Portuguese  and  Eng- 
lish— to  hunt  and  trade.  Barclay,  to  whom  we  are  much  indebted  for  our 
western  possessions,  had  his  wife  with  him — the  first  white  woman  to  visit  this 

The  Spanish,  between  1  774  and  1  790,  made  many  marks  of  ownership 
between  Mexico  and  Cooks  Inlet.  The  English  also  became  active.  In  I  776 
John  Stringer  named  Queen  Charlotte  Sound.  The  next  year  Dixon  traded  at 
and  named  Dixon  Entrance.  John  Mears  brought  over  some  Chinese  with  the 
assistance  of  whom  he  built  the  first  boat  at  Nootka  and  the  first  English  fort. 
Although  dishonest  and  dishonorable  as  a  pirate,  he  made  the  best  claim  on  the 
Coast  for  England. 

The  trading  scheme  in  those  days  was  to  make  cheap  trinkets  at  home, 
trade  them  to  the  Coast  Indians  for  furs,  and  the  furs  to  Chinese  for  teas,  and 
sell  the  teas  at  home  or  in  Europe  at  enormous  profits.  Many  of  these  crude 
sailing  vessels  circumnavigated  the  globe. 

The  beautiful  bays,  narrow  straits,  inland  seas,  bold  bluffs,  islands,  rivers 
and  snow-covered  peaks  bear  the  names  of  these  fur  hunters.  As  we  passed  m 
and  out  among  these  narrow  passages  and  numerous  islands  I  could  not  con- 
ceive  how   they   managed   such   crude   sailing   vessels   m   the   strong   tides,    wind- 


locked  waters,  fogs,  storms  and  hidden  rocks.  With  inferior  nautical  instru- 
ments and  no  charts.  I  would  get  lost  if  I  was  on  foot  here  on  a  clear  day. 
Many  times  along  the  inside  passage  the  only  way  that  I  could  see  out  was 
straight  up. 


Canneries  apear  at  intervals  of  about  twenty-five  miles  and  near  them  a 
few  Indian  huts;  now  and  then  a  small  native  village.  Alert  Bay  being  one  of 
the  largest.  A  semi-circle  of  totem  poles  face  the  water  at  about  hish  tide  line, 
and  back  of  them  a  row  of  shacks  also  facing  the  water. 

Each  shack  has  a  door  in  the  middle  and  a  small  window  on  each  side  of  it. 
the  whole  appearing  like  a  row  of  animal  faces.  Its  population  must  be  about 
five  hundred  Indians  and  half  as  many  whites.  It  has  a  church  or  two.  mill  and 

A  little  farther  north  is  the  cleanest  and  most  prosperous  Indian  village  on 
the  Canadian  coast,  the  town  of  New  Bella  Bella.  It  consists  almost  wholly 
of  Indians.  Instead  of  the  one-story,  dilapidated,  animal-faced,  twenty-five  dollar 
shack  of  the  Alert  Bay  Indian,  the  Bella  Bella  has  a  two  or  more  stor>'  modem 
looking  residence,  newly  painted  white,  with  dull  red  trimmings,  large  enough 
to  accommodate  from  ten  to  forty  persons. 

The  canery  at  this  place  is  a  large  one  and  must  furnish  employment  for 
about  all  the  population — perhaps  600.  The  old  village  of  Bella  Bella  was 
deserted  a  few  years  ago,  and  like  the  rotting  totems  and  grave  marks  near  it 
is  tumbling  down,  as  many  other  villages  have  done  and  are  doing  on  this  coast, 
some  for  fanciful  reasons,  others  because  of  infection  and  contagion. 

Alexander  Mackenzie,  the  first  white  man  to  cross  Canada  from  Hudson 
Bay  to  the  Pacific,  came  out  on  the  coast  here,  and  with  red  vermilion  wrote  on 
a  rock  in  the  sea:  "Alexander  Mackenzie,  from  Canada  by  land,  the  22nd  of 
July,    1793." 

During  the  third  day  out  we  entered  Dixon  Entrance.  Here  the  ocean 
swells  rolled  in  between  the  north  end  of  Queen  Charlotte  and  south  end  of 
Prince  of  Wales  Islands — in  other  words,  between  Canada  and  Alaska. 

The  Indians  named  this  body  of  water  Kaiganee.  The  waters  were  not 
rough,  as  they  frequently  are.      Whale  and  porpoise  were  plentiful. 

We  examined  under  the  glass  every  foot  of  shore,  as  well  as  every  mountain 
pass  and  gorge,  for  this  is  the  terminus  of  the  Canadian  Grand  Trunk  Railroad 
to  be  completed  in  1911.  Here  is  Port  Simpson,  started  in  1821,  and  Prince 
Rupert,  just  a  year  old.  This  is  the  end  of  the  British  and  beginning  of  our 
territory — the  imaginary  line  of  "54-40  or  fight,"  the  old  1825  Russian-English 
and  new    1903   English-American  treaty  line. 


The  Portland  Canal  separated  the  mountains  just  enough  to  pull  the  Inter- 
national Boundary  Line  through,  and  which  passes  on  out  toward  the  sea  so 
as  to  give  Wales  Island  and  another  small  island,  which  makes  a  sort  of  a  pro- 
tection for  these  new  harbors  to  Canada.  They  certainly  need  them  for  their 
harbor  protection,  which  is  not  good. 

Extensive  improvements  are  being  made  at  Prince  Rupert.  One  blast  of 
forty  tons  of  explosives  in  February,  1909,  blew  a  whole  bluff  into  the  channel. 
Both  Canadian  and  American  boats  will  call  at  this  port  this  summer,  the  travel 
and  traffic  will  be  large,  and  many  tourists  will  invest  in  town  lots.  \X'hen  this 
road  is  completed  and  a  branch  built  to  Dawson  this  port  will  be  a  busy  one. 
It  will  have  the  shortest  route  across  Canada  and  from  Europe  to  the  Orient.  It 
will  tap  the  rich  coal  fields,  the  farming;  and  (  allle  country  and  timber  resources 
of  the  Northwest  Territory. 


I  he  fish  industry  of  llif  (  anadian  Pacific  is  capable  of  an  annual  income 
of  five  million  dollars,  and  ihc  K"ld  output  of  Dawson  as  much  more. 

1  he  new  town  has  a  |)opulation  of  a  thousand  now.  mostly  in  tents,  but 
111  twenty-five  years  it  will  have  twrnty-fivc  thousand  i)opulation  or  more  and 
some  of  the  trade  of  Vancouver. 

Years  ago  when  Frederick  Schwatka  visited  here  he  wrote  that  the  Cana- 
dian Pacific  Railroad  was  after  a  ri^ht  of  way  aloni?  the  Skeena  River.  Political 
struj<(j;les  betwcn  that  road  and  the  Grand  I  runk  have  been  numeruos  and 
titanic  since  then.  I  en  or  fifteen  years  ago  the  Canadian  Parliament  authorized 
the  Hudson  Bay  and  Western  Railway  to  build  from  Fort  Churchill,  on  Mudson 
Bay.  the  eastern  terminus  of  the  Hudson  Bay  (  ompany,  to  Port  Simpson  on 
the  Pacific,  the  western  terminus  of  tha  t  company,  entirely  spanning  the  greatest 
private  empire  of  this  or  any  other  continent.  1  he  land  of  Mackenzie,  Peace, 
Strathcona.  Sir  Donald  Prince  Rupert  and  others,  fearless  and  lordly  princes, 
in  their  own  domain,  lords  of  all  they  surveyed. 

No  more  fitting  name  could  have  been  chosen  for  this  new  port,  destined 
to  be  the  largest  Canadian  city  inside  of  a  hundred  years,  than  that  of  Prince 
Rupert,  who  received  the  first  grant  from  the  King,  in  I  669,  of  all  this  domain, 
and  who  was  afterward  first  governor  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company.  To  him 
should  be  erected  the  largest  monument  in  Canada. 

Grand  is  and  successful  will  be  the  scheme  to  connect  the  Atlantic  and 
Pacific  with  a  railroad  so  distant  from  the  United  States,  so  naturally  fortified 
on  its  western  terminus,  so  direct  and  short  for  transcontinental  traffic,  and  so 
surrounded  with  resources  of  sea,  mine,  farm  and  forest. 

The  opening  of  the  Orient  to  trade,  the  building  of  the  United  States 
Pacific  navy,  the  power  of  the  Japanese  navy,  and  the  growth  of  the  west  will 
cause  England  to  restore  and  increase  the  naval  facilities  at  Esquimault  or  else- 
where near,  and  keep  on  this  coast  a  navy  equal  to  the  United  States  or  Japan. 
When  Edward  Pierrepont  in  I  883  visited  here  he  had  the  same  inspiration  that 
I  have,  he  coveted  it  for  his  own  country. 

The  presidential  issue  of  "54-40  or  fight"  was  a  warm  one  between  politi- 
cal parties,  but  a  warmer  one,  if  possible,  between  England  and  the  States. 
That  isue  was  left  to  James  Buchanan,  our  Secretary  of  State,  and  Richard 
Packinham.  British  Minister  to  this  country,  the  result  of  which  (1846)  we 
all  know. 

Mr.  Pierrponl  enthusiastically  remarks  that  "it  ought  to  have  made  the 
minister  a  duke,  and  placed  the  secretary  in  disgrace."  As  we  gather  more  facts 
and  history  of  early  settlement,  trade  and  claims,  we  are  inclined  to  concede 
like  Buchanan  to  Packinham's  theory. 

If  the  Spanish  had  obtained  justice  at  the  Nootka  Convention,  the  coast, 
from  California  to  Dixon  Entrance  at  least,  would  belong  to  Spain.  If  the  Rus- 
sian traders  and  explorers  would  have  made  claim,  history  and  record  of  their 
rights  from  the  beginning,  I  believe  Alaska  would  extend  to  California.  If  the 
issue  of  "54-40  or  fight"  had  prevailed  the  sentiment  of  so  large  a  per  cent  of 
the  people  of  the  States  and  Canada  at  the  time  would  have  made  annexation 
very  probable.  But  that  little  word  "if"  is  written  all  over  Dixon  Entrance, 
and  the  issues  have  passed  into  history. 

In  a  few  years  Prince  Rupert  will  be  a  large  city  and  the  statues  of  Rupert 
and  Packinham  will  stand  on  its  public  squares.  If  James  Buchanan  was  in 
error,  then  later,  as  President,  he  did  some  better,  lor  which  statues  may  be 
elsewhere  erected  to  him.  The  population  of  Prince  Rupert  will  be  typically 
western,  and  more  like  Seattle  than  Canada  or  England.  Our  boats  and  people 
will  be  as  numerous  as  theirs.  There  will  be  no  national  strife,  but  the  compe- 
tition of  trade  will  be  keen. 



For  a  century  the  boundary  line  has  been  of  serious  importance  to  nations, 
but  the  discovery  of  gold  in  the  Klondike,  some  on  our  and  more  on  the  Canadian 
side  of  the  line,  made  it  necessary  to  fix  it  definitely. 

At  the  time  we  were  insisting  on  our  rights  of  discovery  m  this  Northwest 
Russia  would  have  been  highly  pleased  if  we  had  extended  the  "Oregon 
Country"  to  the  Alaska  line,  entirely  shutting  England  off  from  the  sea.  In 
I  822-25  England  and  Rusia  agreed  upon  a  boundary  tribunal  which  fixed  the 
line  practically  as  it  is  now,  without  marking  it. 

At  that  time  the  English  members  contended  for  the  whole  Alaska  pan- 
handle. Failing  in  that,  they  urged  that  the  coast  line  was  the  outer  coast  of 
the  islands,  leaving  nothing  but  a  fringe  of  islands  for  Alaska,  but  at  last  yielding 
to  every  point,  and  bemg  entirely  cut  off  from  all  the  waters  north  of  Dixon 

For  boundary  commissioners  in  1903  the  United  States  appointed  Secre- 
tary Root,  Senator  Lodge  of  Massachusetts  and  Senator  Turner  of  Washington; 
Great  Britain  selected  Lord  Chief  Justice  Alverston  and  Canada  chose  Jette 
and  Aylesworth.  They  convened  in  London  September  3d  and  rendered  a 
decision  October  20th,  1903.  The  commissioners  for  the  United  States  and 
England  practically  agreed  that  the  line  was  practically  where  we  contended. 
The  commissioners  for  Canada  (like  the  press  of  their  country)  were  ver\'  poor 
losers,  refusing  to  sign  any  report  or  finding. 

No  case  has  ever  been  more  ably  argued  or  exhaustively  presented  than 
this  one,  before  the  tribunal  of  1825,  unless  it  was  the  presentation  of  the  same 
issues  before  the  commissioners  of   1903. 

The  treaty  of  1825  was  drawn  in  French.  The  1903  English  advocates 
argued  long  on  the  interpretation  and  construction  of  the  words  "crete-crest," 
"cote-coast,"  "lisiere  strip"  and  the  like.  The  maps  of  George  Vancouver  were 
used  in  fixing  the  line  by  the  commission  of  1825,  which  showed  a  continuous 
line  of  mountains  parallel  with  the  coast  (so  have  many  subsequent  geographers). 
The  fact  IS  that  the  mountain  range  is  not  continuous  nor  parallel  to  the  coast, 
although  it  would  have  that  appearance  to  a  person  cruising  near  the  coast.  1  his 
was  also  a  reason  advanced  by  them  for  their  construction  of  the  Treaty  of  1825, 
and  every  other  possible  contention  that  skilled  diplomats  and  shrewd  lawyers 
could  make  was  presented.  Maps  from  the  archives  and  antiquated  vaults  of 
all  nations  were  dug  out,  compared  and  discussed. 

On  February  25th,  1903,  the  Fifty-seventh  Congress  appropriated 
$  1  00,000  for  the  expense  of  the  boundary  commission.  Ihe  decision  gave  to 
Canada  Wales  (not  Prince  of  Wales)  and  Pearse  Islands,  at  the  elnrance  to 
Port  Simpson,   and  Sitklan   Island  to  the  L^iited  States. 

A  well  defined  and  permanently  marked  boundary  lino  is  now  being  estab- 
lished on  the  ground,  so  that  it  need  never  again  be  disputed. 

The  international  questions  for  these  waters  are  not  all  settled  yet.  how- 
ever. In  time,  as  fish  become  more  scarce  or  the  industry  more  extensive.  Cana- 
dians and  Americans  will  jealously  contend  for  exclusive  rights  in  the  waters 
on  and  near  their  own  coasts,  and  the  hundreds  of  island  passages.  I  o  settle 
these  contentions  their  respective  governments,  together  with  the  British  govern- 
ment, must  decide  upon,  mark  and  patrol  the  "open  sea"  and  "three-mile 
limits."  If  one  nation  fosters  and  propagates  the  fish  at  its  expense,  and  limits 
the  catch  while  the  subjects  of  the  other  have  unlimited  authority  to  take  the 
fish,  the  issue  will  soon  be  as  grave  and  annoying  as  the  seal  question.  Some 
small  dirty  fishing  craft  will  sometime  eagerly  pursue  a  school  of  splashing 
salmon,  and  in  its  haste  carry  a  weather-beaten,  ten-cent  flag,  without  courtesy. 


beyond  tlir  limits  of  a  patrol  or  national  line,  and  become  the  target  for  a  cruiser. 
Hie  trial  will  bririK  up  national  or  individual  rights  whicli  may  bo  heard  in 
Washington,    London    or    Otlawa,    or   provoke    international    war. 


As  wr  steamed  over  the  l)ounclary  lim*  into  Alaska,  or  Al-ak-shak  (great 
land),  as  it  was  called  by  the  I'.sc|uimaux,  (  aplain  Nord,  of  the  steamship  Dol- 
phin, ordered  the  whistle  lied  down  for  awhile.  By  the  way,  no  more  careful 
captain  nor  more  accommodating  company  than  the  Alaska  Steamship  Company 
ever  sailed  boats  along  this  coast. 

I  he  Portland  Canal  and  Skeena  River  are  gorges  left  by  great  glaciers, 
the  marks  of  which  are  still  visible,  and  their  moram  and  debris  will  be  the 
building  ground  for  a  city.  The  geology,  traditions  and  natives  of  Naas  River 
are  interesting  subjects,  but  with  many  others  must  be  passed  by  in  this  short 

As  we  cross  Dixon  Entrance  to  the  northeast  is  the  famous  Behms  Canal, 
to  the  westward  Duke.  Annett,  Gravinao  and  smaller  islands  by  the  hundred, 
for  we  are  in  the  very  middle  of  the  Alexandrian  Archipelago,  the  map  of  which 
looks  like  it  had  been  used  as  a  target  for  a  double-barreled  shotgun  loaded  with 
all  kinds  of  shot  and  slugs.  1  here  are  bays,  channels  and  straits  like  spiderwebs 
in  every  direction.  The  islands  rise  up  abruptly  from  the  water  five  hundred 
to  five  thousand  feet.  It  is  impossible  to  see  through,  around  or  over  them,  and 
as  easy  to  get  lost  as  in  a  Palace  of  Mirrors.  The  Thousand  Islands  of  the 
St.  Lawrence  are  here  multiplied  tenfold,  magnified  a  million  times  and  beautified 
beyond  description. 

We  are  hardly  over  the  line  before  we  reach  Revillagigedo  Island,  so 
named  by  Vanocuver,  and  here,  on  the  narrow  beach  at  the  foot  of  a  for-^st- 
covered  mountain,  flanked  by  Indian  shacks,  graves,  totems  and  canneries,  is 


Sawmills,  canneries,  schools,  churches,  newspapers,  stores,  cable  and  wire- 
less stations,  and  many  comfortable  homes  border  the  narrow  planked  street,  or 
rather  walk,  huddled  together  as  though  in  fear  of  the  sea,  mountain  and  natives 
entirely  surrounding  it.  But  small  as  it  is,  it  is  the  metropolis  of  the  country 
about  it,  recipient  of  no  inconsiderable  trade,  and  the  center  of  the  American 
fishing  industry,  and  mines  on  Prince  of  Wales  Island  near  by  on  the  westward. 

Small  boats  to  and  trom  the  mines  and  canneries  tie  up  and  trade 
every  hour,  and  large  boats  from  Seattle  every  day.  The  cannery  employes 
are  about  equally  Indian,  Jap  and  Chinese,  with  a  few  white  managers. 
The  Indians  and  Mongolians  are  renewing  their  blood  relationship.  It  is  im- 
possible to  tell  the  nationality  of  some  of  these  cannery  children,  and  often  I 
have  been  unable  to  distinguish  the  nativity  of  their  parents. 

Ketchikan  has  about  a  thousand  population,  including  three  hundred  In- 
dians, a  few  Japs,  and  Chinese.  Generally  speaking,  it,  like  all  the  other  modern 
villages  and  towns  on  the  Alaska  coast,  is  but  a  handful  of  Seattle.  The  big 
cannery,  the  mill,  the  water  works,  Indian  shacks  and  totems,  and  by  all  means 
the  curio  stores,  are  interesting  sights  for  the  tourist,  who  is  very  hungiy  for  some- 
thing of  the  kind  by  the  time  he  reaches  here  on  his  third  or  fourth  day  out.  and 
they  are  indeed  worth  the  cost  and  time  of  the  voyage.  Scow  load  after  load 
of  salmon,  still  flopping,  arrive  at  the  cannery  and  can  be  watched  until  they  are 
in  the  can  ready  for  market.  I  asked  what  they  paid  for  them,  and  was  told 
ten  cents  per  Sockeye.  seventy-five  cents  per  hundred  for  Dog,  and  a  little  more 
for  Humpback.      For  those  who  have  a   few  days'   time  between  boats,   a  most 

enjoyable  recreation  could  be  had  by  going  to  the  cannery  and  hsh  hatchery  at 
Loring,  on  Naha  Bay,  where  Vancouver  repaired  his  injuries  after  being  well 
whipped  by  the  Indians  at  Traitor's  Cove  near  by.  The  scenery  can  hardly  be 
excelledOld  Fort  Tongass,  occupied  from  1867  to  1877,  was  on  the  American 
side  of  Dixon  Entrance. 


From  Ketchikan  the  Seattle  boats  usually  go  to  Metlakahtla.  but  a  few 
miles'  distant  on  Annett  Island.  The  Indian  development  at  New  Bella  Bella, 
Sitka  and  Kodiak  is  remarkable,  but  here  it  is  marvelous. 

An  hour's  talk  with  Mr.  Duncan  will  never  be  forgotten,  and  two  or  three 
days  spent  waiting  for  another  boat  will  not  be  long  or  regretted. 

The  cannery,  like  everything  here,  is  the  cleanest  in  Alaska.  1  he  most 
wonderful  chapter  in  the  history  of  missionary  endeavor,  in  civilizing  the  Indian, 
is  that  relating  to  the  work  of  Wm.  Duncan  at  Metlakahtla  on  Annett  Island, 
Alaska.  An  hour's  run  from  Ketchikan,  two  from  Prince  Rupert,  six  or  seven 
from  Wrangell,   and  three  days  from  Seattle. 

Between    1 850  and    1 860   the  Indians,   made  intemperate   by   the   Hudson  f 
Bay  Company,  then  robbed  by  it,  became  malicious  toward  the  whites.       Fhey^ 
were  canabals,   murderers,   polygamists,   believed    in   witchcraft,    and    had   slaves, 
ate  their  food  raw  usually,  and  lived  almost  like  beasts. 

In  1856  Captain  Provost,  who  was  patrolling  the  English  waters  between 
Russian  and  American  territory,  returned  to  London  and  reported  this  state  of 
affairs  and  incidentally  wrote  a  newspaper  request  for  missionaries.  The  result 
was  the  equipment  of  young  Duncan  from  a  training  school  through  the  Church 
of  England.  After  a  long  trip  around  the  Horn  and  some  preparations  at  Vic- 
toria,  Mr.   Duncan  commenced  systematically   at   Fort  Simpson. 

He  was  opposed  by  the  Shamen  (medicine  men  and  witch  doctors), 
because  he  interfered  with  their  business;  by  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  because 
he  destroyed  their  liquor  trade  and  shameful  practices;  by  the  chiefs  and  influ- 
ential Indians  because  he  abolished  slavery  and  polygamy;  and,  most  lamentably 
of  all,  by  his  own  church,  the  Church  of  England,  because  he  knew  better  than 
to  introduce  some  of  the  dogmas  and  doctrines  of  that  church  to  his  savage 

Hardly  more  than  a  boy,  a  stranger  to  the  native  language,  opposed  by 
every  one,  but  with  a  real  Christian  message,  inspiration  and  indomitable  courage, 
he  began  the  herculean  task,  which  from  that  day  to  this,  under  his  personal 
supervision,  has  evolved  these  most  barbarous  savages  of  the  woods  to  a  grade 
of  civilization  and  Christianity  that  will  compare  favorably  with  any  village  in 
North  America  of  1,500  population,  in  Christianity,  temperance,  industry-  and 

Their  homes,  buildings,  streets  and  general  appearance  have  the  honor  ol 
being  better  than  any  other  Indian  village  known,  and  far  superior  to  some  of 
the  white  villages  in  Alaska  and  elsewhere,   for  that   matter. 

On  May  27th,  1862,  six  large  canoe  loads  ol  Indians  joined  the  colony 
on  Metlakahtla  Island  in  Canada,  and  many  others  rapidly  followed,  increasing 
their  number  to  about  a  thousand.  They  had  a  church,  school,  cannery,  soap 
factory  and  other  industries.  This  place  was  about  seventeen  miles  from  Port 
Simpson,  on  the  location  of  an  ancient  Tsimpsean  village,  of  which  tribe  the 
settlement  is  mostly  composed,  and  the  famous  Legaic  was  their  chief.  I  he 
members  subscribed  to  the  following  rules: 

I  .       To    give  up  Ahlied  or  Indian  deviltry. 

2.  To    cease  calling  in  Shamen,  or  medicine  men.  when  sick. 

3.  To   cease  gambling. 

4.  To   cease  giving  away  then   property  tor  display    (potlatches). 


3.       I  o  cease  painting  iheir  faces. 

(>.        I  o   coaso  incliil^in^  in   inloxK  almi<  drinks. 

7.        I  o    rest  on  tlic  .S,il)l)all). 

H.        I  ()    iillcnci   icIi^;k)Us   mslruc  tion. 

').        i  ()   send  llini   cluldren  to  school. 

10.  I  o   l)c  cleanly. 

11.  I  o    be  industrious. 

12.  I  o   be  peaceful. 

13.  In    build   neat   houses. 

14.  If)   pay  the  village  tax. 

Several  authors  have  published  a  letter,  written  early  by  Mr.  Duncan  to 
Sir  James  Douglass,  which  with  reference  to  paying  taxes,  says  in  part:  "On 
\cu  ^  cars  Day  the  male  inhabitants  came  cheerfully  forward  to  pay  the  village 
tax.  which  I  had  proposed  to  levy  annually,  viz. :  One  blanket  or  two  and  one 
hall  dollars  for  such  as  had  attained  manhood,  and  one  shirt  or  one  dollar  for 
such  as  had  approached  manhood.  Our  revenue  this  year  amounts  to  one  green, 
one  blue  and  ninety-four  white  blankets,  one  pair  of  white  trousers,  one  dressed 
elk  skin,  seventeen  shirts  and  seventeen  dollars." 

The  Bishop  of  the  Church  of  England  tried  to  compel  these  people  to  take 
the  Lord's  Supper  and  observe  some  of  the  forms  of  the  church.  Mr.  Duncan 
knew  that  to  d  oso  would  undo  the  work  already  done;  the  rupture  caused  a 
withdrawal  from  the  church  and  the  beginning  of  a  new  colony. 

I  he  Canadian  Government  took  sides  with  the  church  and  assisted  it  in 
confiscating  all  their  homes,  industries  and  church  property.  Mr.  Duncan,  with 
the  assistance  of  such  men  as  Dr.  Sheldon  Jackson  and  Henry  Ward  Beecher, 
induced  the  Government  of  the  United  States  (under  which  one  can  worship 
»  according  to  the  dictates  of  his  own  conscience)  to  give  them  Annett  Island, 
their  present  home,  to  which  they  removed  and  commenced  anew  in  1887. 
Books,  good  furniture  and  music  may  be  found  in  almost  every  home.  Their 
brass  band  is  known  throughout  the  coast,  where  it  has  given  concerts. 

Although  Mr.  Duncan  is  now  77  years  old,  I  found  him  this  summer 
(1908)  in  perfect  health,  inspecting  the  cannery  and  other  work,  paying  the 
men,  caring  for  the  sick,  adiTiinistering  the  law  and  expounding  the  Gospel. 

He  had  solved  the  problem  of  civilizing  the  Indian.  What  he  has  done 
]y'  can  be  done  again.  He  said  the  most  important  factors  are:  "Prohibit  the  use 
of  intoxicating  liquors;  allow  the  Indian  to  assume  Christianity  as  he  abandons 
his  own  practices,  and  third,  give  him  a  square  deal."  Full  civilization  has 
been  reached  from  the  lowest  savagery  in  the  life  of  one  man.  without  the  aid 
of  a  church  or  mission.  Through  Mr.  Duncan  these  pepole  are  paying  their 
own  way  and  working  out  their  own  salvation.  Mr.  Sessions,  in  his  book  pub- 
lished in  1890,  and  Daisy  M.  Stromstadt,  in  a  neat  little  pamphlet  published 
in  1907,  describe  Mr.  Duncan's  work  more  fully,  and  a  complete  publication 
to  date  will   be  out  this  summer    (1909). 


This  is  a  large  island  containing  over  a  thousand  square  miles,  almost  sur- 
rounded by  Behm  Canal.  On  upper  Thorn  Arm,  about  thirty  miles  southeast 
oi  Ketchikan,  quite  extensive  gold  quartz  mine  developments  have  been  made, 
by  drifting,  cross  cutting,  damming  and  piping  of  water,  etc.  A  small  stamp 
mill  was  erected  here  in  1902.  A  little  farther  down  the  Arm  are  extensive 
quantities  of  uniform  garnets,  some  of  which  the  tourists  carry  away  on  every 

George  Inlet,  a  little  nearer  Ketchikan,  has  a  few  gold  prospects,  and 
Tongass  Narrows,  still  nearer,  has  about  the  same.  In  the  vicinity  of  the  gold 
prospects  and  mines  some  good  marble  has  been  located,  but  not  worked. 


The  Unuk  River,  on  which  gold  was  discovered  in  I  870,  empties  into  the 
head  of  Behm  Canal.  It  is  of  considerable  size,  short  and  very  rapid,  and  for 
the  most  part  lying  in  Canadian  territory.  A  wagon  road  has  been  built  on  its 
banks  for  the  purpose  of  developing  mines.  In  the  times  oi  gold  excitement  in 
Cassair,  Atlin  and  Klondike  districts,  prospectors  found  their  way  in  along  this 
stream  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Iskut  River  over  a  low  divide,  as  they  also  did 
by  the  way  of  the  Stikeen,  Skeena  and  Taku.  There  are  several  hct  and  cold 
mineral  springs  in  this  vicinity. 

Cleveland  Peninsula,  a  large,  mountainous,  timber-covered  spur  lying  on 
the  north  side  of  Behm  Canal  and  south  side  of  Ernst  Sound,  and  east  side  of 
Clarence  Strait,  has  many  gold  quartz  prospects,  but  onlv  one  extensive  improve- 
ment, which  is  on  the  Gold  Standard  Group,  at  Helm  Bay,  where  a  five-stamp 
waterpower  mill  has  been  installed,  and  considerable  gold  obtained.  A  vein 
from  six  inches  to  six  feet  in  width  and  a  thousand  feet  long  is  exposed.  Duke 
Island  and  Annett  Island,  to  the  south  of  Ketchikan,  have  no  mineral  develop- 
ments, although  James  Bawden  reported  profitable  gold  on  Annett  Island  in 
1892.  Mr.  Duncan  has  been  opposed  to  miners  prospecting  on  the  island,  be- 
cause they  endanger  the  missionary  work  he  is  doing  there.  On  the  west  side 
of  Tongass  Narrows,  opposite  Ketchikan,  is  Gravina  Island,  of  considerable  size, 
but  of  little  mineral  importance,  although  some  gold  and  copper  prospects  have 
been  found  at  Valenor  Bay  on  the  north,  and  Dall  Head  and  Seal  Cove  on  the 
south  end.  The  narrow  channel  and  rugged  scenery  known  as  Tongass  Narrows 
IS  pictureseque  in  the  extreme.  Excepting  those  about  the  canneries,  the  natives 
are  poor  and  few. 


I  he   most   valuable   island   ol    Alaska    (excepting   Douglass)    is   the    Princel 
of   Wales   Island.      It  should   not  be  confused  with   the   small    island   of    \X'ales 
near  by  on  the  Canadian  side  of  the  boundary  line. 

It  contains  almost  three  thousand  square  miles,  and  for  a  hundred  miles 
it  shelters  the  peaceful  Clarence  Straits  from  the  storms  of  the  ocean.  On  every 
side  it  is  indented  with  most  excellent  harbors,  the  homes  for  centuries  of  numer- 
ous natives,  and  ports  of  safety  and  rendezvous  for  lur  traders  from  the  days 
of  Perez  and  Cook. 

Historic,  Shakan,  Klawak,  Howkan,  Sukkwan,  Klinkan  and  other  noted 
native  Haidah  towns  are  each  marked  by  a  row  of  totems  at  the  tide  line,  and 
a  row  of  shacks  back  of  them.  A  picture  of  any  one  would  be  a  picture  of 
every  one. 

The  native  man  at  one  time  proudly  carved  his  totems,  potlatch  bouls  and 
canoes,  hideously  painted  his  face  and  house  in  the  most  brilliant  colors,  and 
frantically  combatted  the  imaginary  devils  of  every  ill.  The  native  squaw  deftly 
worked  into  the  garments  the  family  or  tribe  badges,  totems  or  traditions,  and 
performed  the  menial  duties  of  slave  for  the  whole  family.  How  difTeronI  now! 
1  he  days  of  the  savage  customs,  sea  otter  and  fur  trader  are  over;  the  mission- 
ary, church,  cannery,  postoffice,  general  store  and  miner  have  taken  llu-ir  places. 

A  visit  to  or  sight  of  these  one-time  homes  and  totems  ol  a  flourishing 
people  is  circumstantial  evidence,  convincing  beyond  a  reasonable  doubt,  that  the 
native  race  will  ere  long  have  disappeared. 

Many  of  the  old   villages   are  entirely  deserted;   all   are   largely   so.       I  he 
old  chiefs  have  died;  new  ones  have  not  been  chosen;  dances  and  potlatches  are 
infrequent;   tribal   laws  are  broken   and   abandoned;   diseases  of   pulmonary   and 
rheumatic  natures  are  prevalent.      These  are  a  lew  of  the  signs  of  the  demise  of  . 
the   Mongolian-Indian   race  on  the   Pacific. 


On  the  west  side  of  the  island  is  a  lar^c  numluT  of  smaller  islands  of  little 
known  importance,  the  largest  of  which  is  Dalls  Island.  A  low  pass  only  ahoul 
150  feel  hi^h  crosses  the  island  conneclinK  f  ietla  inlet  on  iIk-  wesi  with  C  hol- 
montlelay   Sound  on   the  east. 

I  he  apex  of  the  range  ol  inounl.uns  is  reached  al  the  sutnmii  of  (  opper 
Mountain,    3,800  feel  above  the  sea. 

Glacial  marks  appear  everywhere,  but  no  glaciers  arc  known  in  the  memory 
of  men;  beautiful  small  lakes  are  numerous  at  all  altitudes;  long  arms  of  the  sea. 
safe  and  convenient  for  trans[)ortation ;  warm  winds  from  the  ocean  current  and 
numerous  Indian  villages,  are  interesting  subjects,  no  detailed  history  or  descrip- 
tion ol  which  has  ever  been  written,  although  the  field  is  a  very  inviting  one. 
I  he  island  is  rich  in  mineral  and  stone;  copper  has  been  the  most  valuable 
— it  is  a  low  grade  copper-iron  sulphide.  Many  of  the  mines  are  worked  no 
more   than   is  nocrssarv   to  hold   them ;  others  are  abandoned    from  time   to  time. 


or  made  fraudulently  to  appear  valuable  for  the  purpose  of  million-dollar  capi- 
talizations, the  stock  of  which  is  sold  to  "confidential"  friends  or  gullable  "suck- 
ers." as  was  done  to  my  knowledge  by  the  Grindall  Mining  Company. 

Niblack.  Copper  Mountain,  Hadley,  Jumbo  and  other  Prince  of  XX'ales 
properties  are  well  known  on  this  coast.  They  have  certainly  had  their  ups  and 
downs.  The  Mamie  Mines  are  connected  with  the  Hadley  Smelter  by  6,000 
feet  of  ariel  way,  and  the  Stevenson  Mine  is  connected  with  the  Mamie  by  a 
1 .000-foot  or  more  tram,  and  boats  from  other  mines  bring  oar.  On  the  whole 
the  project  is  a  very  large  one.  and  after  litigation  and  trouble,  I  was  much 
pleased  to  see  it  opened  up  again  in   1908. 

Marble,  pure  white,  light  blue  and  blue  veined,  is  found  al  many  locations 
in  this  district,  and  some  of  the  mines  or  quarries,  such  as  the  Alaska  Marble 
Company,  near  Shakan,  are  producing  beautiful  blocks  of  commercial  marble. 
The  lime  is  not  far  distant  when  the  coast  can  be  supplied  from  these  quarries. 
A  variety  of  grades  and  kinds  of  granite  and  building  stone  can  be  easily  found, 
but  we  have  no  market  for  them  yet. 



The  Indians  do  not  know,  and  history  will  never  chronicle  the  date  when 
Wrangell  was  first  an  Indian  village.  The  Russians  established  a  post  here  in 
I  833.  It  is  named  in  honor  of  a  director  of  the  Russian- American  Fur  Com- 
pany, who  was  Governor  General  of  Alaska  during  the  period  of  his  directorship, 
1840-9.  In  going  up  the  coast  this  is  the  first  opportunity  one  has  to  see  some 
trace  of  the  Russians,  and  although  it  is  but  little,  still  one  is  anxious  to  see  for 
the  first  time  a  creole,  some  old  kitchen  utensil,  or  any  mark  of  their  habitation, 
however  dimly  it  may  appear  now. 

The  old  deserted  Indian  village,  graves  and  totems  are  fair  samples  of  their 
kind  at  fifty  other  places  on  the  coast,  and  the  most  convenient  of  access.  No 
tourist  should  pass  through  Wrangell  without  remaining  over  between  boats. 

The  village  had  its  "up  and  downs."  First,  a  frontier  Russian  post,  en- 
joying the  activities  of  the  sea  otter  trade;  then  after  being  almost  deserted,  it 
was  boomed  by  the  gold  excitement  of  Cassair  District,  and  after  that  had 
passed,  and  for  some  years,  being  nothing  more  than  a  sleepy  relic  of  curosity 
to  tourists,  it  was  suddenly  revived  again  by  the  Klondike  rush  of  1897-8,  many 
of  the  prospectors  going  in  by  way  of  the  Stikine  River,  twelve  miles  above  town. 

Gold  was  discovered  on  this  river  as  far  back  as  1862,  the  first  reports  of  which 
are  in  House  Documents  I  77  of  the  second  session  of  the  Fortieth  Congress. 
The  Cassair  discoveries  about  ten  years  later  brought  hundreds  of  miners  to 
Wrangell,  and  these  prospected  on  every  side,  staking  numerous  claims  of  gold 
and  copper. 

The  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company  trespassed  on  this  Russian  territory  by 
the  way  of  the  Stikine,  and  came  near  causing  open  hostilities,  which  were 
happily  settled  f)y  leci^ing  it  from  the  Russians,  and  Wrangell  from  1837  to 
1847  was  a  Hudson  Bay  trading  post.  The  population  of  all  kinds  is  about 
1 ,200.  The  curio  trade  is  good,  and  the  fish  industry  is  large.  Scow  Bay  is 
the  largest  halibut  shipping  port  in  Alaska.  It  is  a  supply  station  for  canneries 
and  mines,  and  a  boat  runs  up  the  Stikine  in  summer,  to  I  elegraph  C  reek. 
Wrangell  is  on  a  small  island  of  the  same  name,  and  just  above  it  is  another  of 
the  same  size,  Zarembo.  named  in  honor  of  a  Russian  officer  by  Wrangell  in 
recognition  of  his  services  m  frustratiny  the  encroachments  of  the  Hudson  Bay 
Company.  It  has  a  spring  at  which  water  is  bottled  and  sold  at  Seattle  and 
elsewhere ;  ask  for  Zarembo  water. 

Northwest  of  Wrangell  is  Mitkof  Island;  .southwest.  Zarembo;  south. 
Woronkof ski ;  in  fact,  Wrangell  is  surrounded  with  islands,  capes,  etc.,  bearing 
Russian    names,    in    the    midst    of   which    is    Petersburg,    on    Wrangell    Narrows. 


ulu-ic  lishinK  craft  of  every  kind  assemhlc,  where  miners  and  trappers  come  to 
trade  or  catch  a  hoat.  where  Indians  and  Orientals  work  or  fish  side  by  side, 
where  game  is  plentiful,  and  the  scenery  unsurpassed. 

We  passed  through  many  straits,  channels  and  narrows;  Stephens  Pass, 
with  its  bold  rocks  in  the  cracks  of  which,  dwarfed,  twisted  and  starved  spruces 
twine  their  roots  in  search  for  nourishment  and  to  hold  themselves  from  precipi- 
tation into  the  sea;  Granville  Straits,  where  the  shores  are  so  near  that  we  can 
almost  touch  the  trees  on  both  sides,  and  streams  of  snow  water  dash  for  thou- 
sands of  feet  down  from  snow-covered  summits  reared  almost  perpendicularly 
above  us;  and  I  ongass  Narrows,  so  densely  robed  in  evergreen  forest,  with  here 
and  there  peeping  vestiges  of  the  I  ongass  natives.  But  of  all.  the  Wrangell 
Narrows  are  the  most  interesting.  The  steamers  whistle,  and  whistle  and  whistle 
as  a  warning  to  other  boats  not  to  enter  the  dangerous  passage  at  the  same  time. 
If  the  tide  is  out  a  moderately  large  boat  must  wait  for  more  water  and  go  in 
on  the  incoming  tide.  A  dangerous  rock  lies  hidden  at  one  of  the  most  danger- 
ous places.  1  he  strong  tide  currents  are  likely  to  swing  the  vessel  out  of  the 
narrow  channel,  and  at  times  the  propeller  kicks  up  the  muddy  water.  The  hulks 
of  other  vessels  still  visible  on  the  rocks  continually  remind  the  pilots  of  the  peril, 
particularly  that  of  the  Colorado,  which  went  on  the  rocks  in  1900.  An  enor- 
mous whisky  sign  spans  the  length  of  the  stranded  wreck,  always  creating  some 
merriment  for  the  pleasure-seeking  tourist,  but  to  others  it  is  synonomous  of  a 
whisky  sign  just  as  red  and  visible  on  the  stranded  life  and  fortune  of  thousands 
of  most  noble  men.  The  expense  to  the  Government  for  clearing  and  improving 
this  channel  would  be  less  than  the  amount  of  loss  already;  so  would  be  the  cost 
of  prohibiting  the  sale  of  intoxicants  for  beverages  be  less  to  the  Government 
than  either  the  police  expenses,  costs  of  criminal  trials,  or  losses  of  private  for- 
tunes, not  to  include  the  physical  pain,  and  domestic  trouble. 

The  Stikine  River  has  been  a  thoroughfare  to  Indian,  trapper,  trader  and 
miner  for  years.  Some  gold  is  found  along  the  stream,  and  countless  glaciers 
and  rugged  mountains  are  on  every  hand.  A  little  north  of  the  mouth  of  the 
river  is  LeConte  Bay  and  Glacier,  and  farther,  at  intervals  of  ten  miles,  is  Pat- 
terson and  Baird  Glaciers,  about  which  great  icebergs  float  at  all  times.  The 
peak  above  Baird  Glacier  is  Devil's  Thumb,  and  above  the  others  is  Kate's 
Needle;  they  are  Alaska  boundary  marks.  Farragut  Bay  at  the  east  end  of 
Frederick  Sound  is  noted  for  its  abundant  salmon  and  halibut.  In  these  waters 
many  of  the  small  Arctic  cod  boats  fish  in  winter,  and  with  them  the  smaller 
halibut  boats,  perfectly  safe  from  the  ocean  storms  of  the  season,  while  in  mid- 
summer they  go  on  the  outside. 

Some  of  the  richest  quartz  samples  that  I  have  seen  from  Alaska  came 
from  the  hills  back  of  Farragut  Bay.  The  small  mountain  stream  running  into 
the  bay  affords  excellent  power,  and  here  are  a  thousand  acres  of  bottom  land, 
unexcelled  in  fertility;  it  will  produce  five  tons  of  timothy  or  other  grass  per  acre, 
with  a  market  near  always  reay  to  pay  $25  per  ton  or  more.  The  same  land 
will,  I  believe,  average  300  bushels  of  potatoes  to  the  acre,  and  will  grow  many 
other  crops,  with  a  yawning  market  ready  at  all  times.  This  land  and  much 
other  like  it  can  be  homesteaded.  and  will  be  in  a  few  years.  It  is  not  lonesome 
here,  as  canneries,  mines  and  other  industries,  and  several  villages  can  be  reached 
in  two  or  three  hours'  run  of  a  good  naphtha  launch. 

Going  from  Wrangell  northward.  Kupreanof  Island,  on  the  west  side  of 
the  narrows  and  at  the  head  of  Duncan  Canal,  is  highly  mineralized,  in  gold, 
copper  and  silver,  and  several  mines  have  been  extensively  developed,  deep  shafts 
sunk,  buildings,  trams  and  wharves  erected,  and  large  sums  expended,  but  it  is 
a  mixed  lo\v-grade  quartz  proposition,  which  will  not  be  profitable  until  some 
one  solves  the  economical  problems  as  at  Treadwell,  then  here,  on  Prince  of 
Wales  Island  and  in  many  other  places  on  this  coast,  will  be  millions  and  millions 


of  gold,  copper  and  silver.  These  mines,  generally  speaking,  are  not  profitable, 
and  but  few  are  worked  at  all,  even  after  machinery  has  been  installed.  The 
famous  Kake  Indian  village  is  on  Hamilton  Bay  on  the  north  end  of  Kupreanof. 
On  the  southwest  of  this  island  is  Kuiu  Island,  on  which  no  gold  has  been  found, 
but  a  little  coal.  On  Coronation  Island  several  shafts  have  been  sunken  in  Ga- 
lena prospects.  The  Star  of  Bengal,  loaded  with  salmon,  was  lost  on  the  rocks 
of  this  island  September  20,  1908,  and  I  I  1  persons  were  drowned,  and  127 

As  we  were  passing  Cape  Fenshaw,  emerging  from  Frederick  Sound  and 
entering  Windham  Bay,  a  conspicuous  mountain  appeared  as  a  landmark  for 
miles  around.  It  was  Mt.  Sumdum,  about  7,000  feet  high.  Were  we  on  its 
summit  we  could  see  over  the  Cassair  gold  district  in  Canada;  to  the  northward, 
Tracy  Arm  encircles  its  base  for  twenty  miles,  piercing  the  range  deeply ;  south- 
ward is  Endicott  Arm,  into  the  end  of  which  Dawes  Glacier  discharges  millions 
of  tons  of  bergs;  on  the  opposite  of  the  Arm  is  Windham  P.  O.  and  Sumdum, 
in  the  vicinity  of  which  are  a  few  miners'  and  Indians'  shacks.  Truly,  this 
would  be  a  most  ideal  trip  for  a  summer  mountaineering  club.  The  view  over 
the  Alexandrian  Archipelago  would  include  as  much  of  Southeastern  Alaska 
as  could  be  seen  from  any  one  point,  in  addition  to  which  a  sweeping  panoramic 
view  could  be  had  of  that  vast  Canadian  country  over  which  so  many  prospectors 
traveled  from  the  headwaters  of  the  Skeena,  Stikeen,  Unuk  and  Taku  Rivers 
to  Teslin  and  the  upper  waters  of  the  Yukon. 

Every  creek,  bench  and  rock  for  ten  miles  around  Sumdum  has  been  pros- 
pected. In  I  869  Mix  Sylvia  discovered  gold  on  W  indham  and  Sumdum  Bays, 
and  the  gold  taken  from  here,  about  $40,000,  was  the  first  gold  oi  importance' 
taken  from  Alaska.  Both  placer  and  quartz  mines  have  been  developed  and 
perhaps  a  million  dollars  taken  out.  A  ten-stamp  mill  was  run  for  several  years, 
a  3,000-foot  tunnel  was  dug,  and  extensive  improvements  made.  At  present 
there  is  but  little  mining  in  this  vicinity. 

Here  as  everywhere  on  this  range  the  great  cone  center  is  an  intrusive 
diorite,  possibly  mineral-producing,  but  not  highly  mineralized,  extending  half 
way  down  the  mountain,  where  it  meets  a  shistose  sedimentary  rock,  or  the  fruitful 
"green-stones,"  between  which  contact  and  the  water  level  gold  is  usually  found. 

Admiralty  Island,  toward  the  sea,  seems  to  be  a  big  chunk  of  low-grade 
nothing;  the  rock  of  the  island  is  in  part  of  cretaceous  period  of  miocene  epoch, 
likely  to  produce  coal,  and  in  fact  coal  signs  are  numerous,  and  a  little  gold  has 
been  found  on  the  north,  and  some  copper. 

Killisnoo,  the  large  Indian  village  once  bombarded  by  Capt.  Glass  (Ad- 
miral Glass,  recently  decesade)  for  insubordination,  was  one  of  the  earliest  fishing 
and  fur  trading  stations.  The  Northwest  Trading  Company  shipped  fish  oil 
from  there  twenty  years  ago.  Its  present  commercial  imiiortance  is  perhaps  great- 
er than  any  other  Indian  village  m  Alaska. 

nil.  jUNKAU  GOLD  BKi;i. 

I  hi»  gold  Ix-ll  iiiiis  from  StniKJuni  to  Bcrners  Bay,  the  gold  being  usually 
found  m  llie  gr«Tii-sloiu-  In-il  promiscuously.  Going  northward  from  the  mmes 
on  llic  mainland  already  mentioned,  the  ne.xl  of  nnportant  e  are  the  Snetti.sham 
Mme.s  to  the  n^'hl  of  Stephens  Pass,  where  a  smelter  has  been  operated  at  times 
since  1901.  and  from  which  $  I  ()(),()()()  has  no  doubt  been  taken.  laku  Inlet 
and  (jiacier  are  about  twenty  miles  farther  north,  where  many  of  the  tourist  boats 
stop  to  view  the  glacier,  of  marvelous  beauty,  hear  the  roar  of  falling  ice  and 
view  the  fields  of  blue  and  green  icebergs.  After  crossing  this  inlet  we  enter  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  Gold  C  reek.  Sheep  Creek  and  Treadvvell,  where  half  the 
purchase  price  of  Alaska  is  produced  in  gold  every  year,  although  the  rock  is 
not  so  rich  in  gold  per  ton  as  at  many  other  places. 

I  he  successful  production  of  gold  from  this  belt  again  diminishes  from 
here  northward  along  Lynn  Canal  to  Berners  Bay,  where  considerable  develop- 
ment has  taken  place  during  the  last  ten  years.  Three  stamp  mills  have  been 
erected  at  Comet,  or  along  Sherman  Creek  above  it,  to  which  a  small  railway 
has  been  built,  and  a  million  or  more  dollars  has  been  taken  out  in  gold.  At 
intervals  of  five  or  ten  miles  from  Juneau  northward  are  Salmon  and  Lemmon 
Creeks.  Mendenhall  River,  McGinnis.  Peterson  and  Windfall  Creeks,  each  cut- 
ting substantially  the  same  rock  as  Gold  and  Sheep  Creeks.  In  the  late  eighties 
these  streams  were  thoroughly  prospected  and  both  quartz  and  placer  finds  were 
numerous.  "Old  Diggins."  wrecked  mining  cabins,  sluice  boxes  and  even  stamp 
mills  he  rotting  in  the  brush  of  the  gorges,  telling  their  own  history;  nevertheless 
many  thousands  of  dollars  have  been  taken  out  of  these  small  camps.  The  enor- 
mous granite  core  of  the  range  reaches  Lynn  Canal  above  Berners  Bay  and  this 
seems  again  to  prove  that  gold  need  not  as  a  rule  be  expected  within  it,  no  gold 
being  produced  again  until  the  range  has  been  crossed,  and  the  belt  of  older 
rocks  reached  on  the  east  side,  or  in  the  Porcupine  district.  On  the  north  side 
of  Lynn  Canal  some  encouraging  prospects  have  been  developed  at  Lituya  Bay 
by  the  Lukan  family,  whose  lives  have  been  endangered  once  by  starvation  and 
once  by  being  blown  out  to  sea  in  a  small  boat,  without  foor  for  a  week. 

The  glacier  covered  Fairweather  range,  and  mountains  to  the  north  rise 
abruptly  from  the  sea,  affording  no  lodging  place  in  the  precipitous  streams  for 
placer,  and  making  the  country  difficult  to  prospect.  No  mineral  worth  mention 
is  known  on  the  coast  until  near  the  Copper  River  and  Prince  W^illiams  Sound, 
except  a  little  placer  at  Lituya  and  Yaktag. 


As  we  steamed  up  Gastineau  Channel,  on  the  left  was  the  town  of  Douglass 
and  the  1  readwell  Mines  on  Douglass  Island,  which  I  suppose  was  named  in 
honor  of  John  Douglass,  who  prepared  some  of  Cook  s  notes,  aftersvard  becom- 
ing Lord  Salisbury,  being  again  honored  by  the  name  of  Salisbury  Sound. 

No  doubt  the  Russian  fur  traders  explored  this  country,  but  they  made  no 
record  of  it.  Quadra  took  possession  for  Spain  in  1  775,  particularly  of  Salis- 
bury Sound,  Chicagonoff  and  Krugoff  Islands.  But  Cook  and  Vancouver  made 
the  first  reliable  maps,  renaming  everything  in  sight. 

Jumbo  Mountain,  behind  Treadwell,  is  3.333  feet  high.  Ditches  and 
flumes  like  a  network  catch  the  waters  of  the  island,  convey  them  to  the  mines, 
where  they  run  200  of  the  880  stamps,  the  largest  mills  of  the  kind  in  the  world. 

Mining  developments  commenced  here  in  1882.  and  nearly  ever  since  the 
powerful  trip  hammers  have  been  pounding  the  rock  into  dust  day  and  night. 

For  a  mile  and  a  half  along  the  channel,  and  many  feet  under  it.  rock  is 
being  taken  out.  aggregating  approximately  i  00.000  feet  in  extent  of  workings. 
10.000,000  tons  of  rock,  and  $30,000,000  gold. 



.\llli(nit-:li  llic  |>i(K('ss  nf  saving  ihc  koIcI  requires  pulverization,  amalgami- 
/atioii,  (onreiilr.ilion  and  snielhnK.  and  a  Ion  of  rock  contains  but  aljoul  three 
dollars  of  ^oid  value,  iieverllicless  the  system  and  economy  employed  saves  almost 
ImII   (iI    it  as  a  net  orolil. 

I  he  records  show  that  John  1  leadwell  pur(  hased  the  mine  from  F^ierrc 
Joseph   Mrussard    (f'rench  Pete)    September    13,    I H8 1    for  $5. 

1  he  company  owns  many  of  the  tenant  houses,  employes  forcit^n  labor,  and 
occasionally  has  a  strike.  Wars  ago  [•  rcnch  Pete  was  the  cause  of  much  trouble 
and  a  tragedy.  About  the  same  time  the  miners  sold  licjuor  to  the  Indians, 
then  took  their  squaws  to  the  dances,  which  in  time  resulted  in  a  battle.  f  hese 
are  about  the  only  ruflles  in  ihe  even  running  history  of  this  titanic  mining  plant. 


■'In  the  spring  ol  I  H8()  N.  A.  luller  of  Sitka,  on  the  strength  of  a  favor- 
able report  ot  John  Muir  (for  whom  Muir  Glacier  is  named),  sent  Joe  Juneau 
and  Richard  Harris  to  investigate  ^  *  ^  They,  with  three  Indian  guides, 
arrived  at  Windham  Bay  in  May.  located  some  quartz,  and  piospected  lo  Gold 
Creek  (above  Juneau)  and  Silver  Bow  Basin,  from  which  they  took  1,000 
pounds  of  auriferous  quartz,  and  staked  both  placer  and  quartz  mines,  which 
caused  an  excitement. 

"On  November  26th  a  party  of  thirty  started  from  Sitka,  arriving  Decem- 
ber 6th.  1880.  founding  the  town  of  Juneau.  It  was  first  called  Rockwell,  then 
Harrisburg.  and  on  December  14th.  1881.  was  named  Juneau,  and  was  the 
center  of  the  first  Alaska  gold  rush." 

The  quartz  of  Gold  and  Sheep  Creeks  should  repeat  the  production  of 
Treadwell.  They  are  picturesquely  located  on  the  high  mountain  sides,  among 
the  glaciers  above  the  town,  across  the  channel  from  Treadwell.  No!  Juneau 
has  none  of  the  appearances  of  a  miners'  town — peaceful,  good  schools,  cable 
and  wireless  to  the  outside  world,  boats  almost  every  day  all  the  year  from 
Seattle,  newspapers,  and  the  conveniences  of  a  modern  city. 

It  is  also  said  to  be  the  capital  of  Alaska,  although  the  buildings  do  not 
assume  a  capital  appearance,  and  it  is  rumored  that  the  Government  is  of  a 
portable  kind,  usually  found  in  Washington.   D.  C. 


Lynn  C  anal  is  the  water  so  coveted  by  and  contended  tor  by  Great  Britain 
in  the  treaty  arguments  of  1825  and  1903.  It  certainly  is  the  most  clean-cut 
channel  in  Southeastern  Alaska,  and  would  have  made  the  most  ideal  port  for 

On  the  starboard  side  as  we  ascended  \\ere  Mendenhall.  Herbert.  Eagle. 
Mead  and  other  glaciers,  hanging  from  the  7,000-foot  peaks  along  the  tops  of 
which  the  boundary  line  zigzags  northerly.  On  the  port  side  hung  the  spider-like 
glacier  legs  of  the  Muir  Glacier,  covering  the  Fairweather  Range  in  a  cap  of  ice. 

Just  as  we  were  passing  the  north  end  of  the  gold  belt,  the  captain  wanted 
to  know  if  I  saw  a  town  on  the  bank.  I  told  him  I  did  not;  but  he  insisted  that 
there  was  one.  and  with  the  aid  of  the  glasses  we  observed  it  to  be  one  house, 
and  which  he  said  was  Seward  City. 

The  Auk  Indians,  who  scared  Whidby  out  of  his  senses,  are  almost  extinct. 
W  hen  Whidby.  at  X'ancouver's  request,  explored  the  canal  he  thought  the  natives 
wanted  to  kidnap  him.  and  he  named  the  point  "Seduction,"  and  in  his  attempt 
to  get  away  other  Indians  followed  him,  and  the  next  landing  he  called  "Re- 
treat" (on  Admiralty  Island).  On  the  westerly  side  toward  the  head  of  the 
canal  and  up  the  valley  of  the  Chilkat  there  were  and  are  more  Indians.      The 


trails  of  the  Porcupine  gold  stampede,  the  old  Dalton  trails  and  Indian  and 
traders'  trails  to  the  interior  passed  pj  by  Healey's  Store  (Haines  Mission),  and 
inland  to  Wells  and  Klukwan,  and  although  not  nnuch  used  now,  are  still  very 
plainly   marked.      A  railroad  has  been  projected   to   the  interior  over  this   route. 


Alaskans  everywhere  try  to  erect  monuments  to  the  honor  of  Secretary 
Seward,  who  purchased  it  forty-two  years  ago.  That  is  reason  enough  for  giving 
his  name  to  towns,  forts,  rivers,  mines  and  so  many  otheer  mailers  and  places. 
Fort  Seward  is  but  one  of  these  monuments. 

All  the  attractions  in  the  category  of  nature,  from  dense  woods  to  barren 
rocks;  from  ocean  level  to  ice-capped,  cloud-covered  peaks;  from  the  soft,  balmy 
breeze  off  the  ocean  current  to  the  Arctic  blizzard  from  over  the  Pass,  may  be 
found  here.  If  this  port  was  in  any  other  part  of  the  world  in  sixty  degrees 
north  latitlde  as  it  is,  it  would  be  frozen  over  half  the  year. 

Icebergs  float  near  by  all  the  year,  but  the  climate  is  never  very  cold,  and 
in  summer  real  "cow  cream  "  (for  the  other  is  the  stand-by  of  the  miner)  may 
be  had  from  the  dany,  and  strawberries,  blueberries  or  raaspberries  from  the 
vine.  The  ice  trust  has  no  monopoly ;  when  the  article  is  wanted,  a  berg  can  be 
lassoed  near  at  hand,  blue  cold,  clear  and  clean,  perhaps  frozen  hfty  years  ago. 
when  It  commenced  its  descent  from  the  summit  of  a  mountain  and  liberated  but 
a  day.      I  can  testify  that  they  cannot  be  surpassed  for  ice  cream  purposes. 

I  climbed  a  small  mountain  near  the  fort  and  took  a  view  of  the  surround- 
ing country, — out  to  the  ocean;  upon  the  Fairweather  Range;  up  the  Chilkat, 
and  everywhere  the  most  awe-inspiring  sights  gladdened  my  soul.  Fort  William 
H.  Seward  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  spots  in  Alaska. 

A  Government  boat  in  time  of  need  can  convey  the  soldiers  to  Skagway, 
where  they  can  be  taken  into  the  interior  by  the  railroad,  or  up  and  down  the 
coast,  wherever  they  may  be  needed.  The  fort  could  not  resist  a  squad  ol  quail 
hunters,  but  it  looks  well  kept,  and  breaks  the  monotony,  which  is  the  only  use 
we  have  for  such  things  on  this  coast. 


As  we  ascended  Lynn  Canal  to  its  head  we  came  to  a  lork.  On  the  left 
prong  was  Healey's  Post,  or  Dyea  of  old.  Near  by  is  Haines,  and  a  whart 
ready  to  fall,  and  a  little  below  it  Fort  William  H.  Seward,  a  nicely  kept  bar- 
racks with  about  1  00  soldiers,  and  one  of  the  most  beautiful  spots  on  the  coast. 
The  tourist  should  climb  some  elevation  here  and  look  over  the  Fairweather 
Range;  the  view  excels  the  choicest  of  Switzerland.  On  the  right  fork  was 

In  the  early  days,  when  gold  fever  was  most  feverish,  some  disembarked 
on  the  left  fork  and  cooled  their  fever  in  crossing  through  this  valley  and  over 
the  Chilkoot;  others  landed  on  the  right  fork  at  the  foot  of  White  Horse  I  rail, 
and  just  as  effectively  cooled  theirs  that  way. 

The  Chilkoot  Trail  was  best  known,  and  first  used.  Schwatka  went  over 
in  1883,  naming  the  pass  "Perrier  Pass,"  after  a  Frenchman  of  that  name.  At 
the  same  time  he  named  Lake  Lindeman  in  honor  of  Dr.  Lindeman  of  Bremen 
Geographical  Society.  He  reached  the  summit  in  about  six  days.  Although 
his  is  the  first  official  exploration,  nevertheless  it  had  been  crossed  by  others,  who 
had  made  some  report  of  it  before,  including  Arthur  Krause.  also  Bean  in   1878. 

This  pass  was  the  highway  for  Indian  trade  between  the  coast  and  interior 
Indians  from  time  immemorial. 

From  the  landing  on  Lynn  Canal  to  Sheep  Camp  was  twelve  miles  up  the 
valley  of  this  Dyea  Inlet,  up  which  small  canoes  could  be  rowed,  poled  or  pulled, 
and  these  were  often  used  to  assist  in  drawing  the  freight  up  most  of  the  way. 


I  lie  Ir.til  <  rossfs  and  rfcrcisscs  tlir  strt-arii.  .iiicJ  iii  its  k y  water  the  gold 
fevor  found  its  first  rliill  as  the  victim  waded,  stuml)lcd  and  scrambled  through 
ihc  swifr  rapids  and  over  the  round  glacial  stones  which  covered  river  holtom 
and  valley. 

In  the  near  proximity  to  Sheep  Camp  was  and  is  a  dirty  Indian  village. 
Hut  its  |)opulation  of  men,  sc|uaws.  children  and  dogs  took  a  prominent  part  in 
the  now  historical  stampede. 

Many  of  these  Indians  could  carry  one  hundred  and  lilty  pounds  to  the 
summit  easier  than  some  of  the  gold  seekers  could  crawl  up  without  any  load. 
I  he  usual  load  was  one  hundred  pounds;  strong  Indians  more;  squaws,  children 
and  dogs  accordingly  less.       They  charged  from  ten  to  twenty-five  cents  a  pound. 

■Ill  I.Ki  X  IT     TK.M  1. 

Now  stories  are  told  about  strong  Indians  taking  more  than  two  hundred 
pounds  to  the  summit  on  their  backs.  In  one  instance  an  organ  weighing  two 
hundred  and  twenty  pounds;  and  in  another  a  barrel  of  pitch  weighing  two  hun- 
dred and  forty-five  pounds,  which  is  the  best  record  as  told  to  me  by  a  personal 
friend,  who  was  an  eye-witness. 

The  last  half  of  the  trail  to  Sheep  Camp  (so  named  by  pioneer  hunters 
who  killed  some  sheep  there)  is  in  the  side  of  the  bluff  several  hundred  feet  above 
the  stream.  But  the  climb  does  not  commence  in  earnest  until  we  leave  Sheep 

This  IS  the  timber  or  snow  line.  A  glacier  hangs  on  either  side  and  the 
streams  from  each  unite  here.  On  every  hand  is  evidence  that  these  glaciers 
once  were  one  and  discharged  in  the  canal  at  Dyea.  Some  portion  of  the  glacier 
has  receded  several  miles  above  the  Camp,  and  there  now  groans,  roars  and  dis- 


charges  ice  and  water  near  the  trail.  It  is  one  of  the  rear  guards  of  the  retreating 
Malaspina  Snow  Cap,  of  which  there  are  many  visable  on  this  side  of  the  Fair- 
weather  Range,  including  Muir,  Davidson  and  Bertha. 

Looking  backward  from  Sheep  Camp  we  behold  the  glacier-worn,  stone- 
covered  valley  of  the  Dyea  River,  up  which  came  the  tens  of  thousands  of  Klon- 
dike adventurers  in  1897-8.  In  the  mad  rush  some  overloaded,  inexperienced 
or  reckless  drowned  in  this  river  before  reaching  this  point.  Others  became  so 
footsore,  homesick,  or  discouraged  that  they  returned;  still  others  had  no  provi- 
sions, some  no  money  to  employ  the  pack  Indians,  and  after  trying  a  few  days 
to  carry  their  own  supplies  (usually  a  ton)  up  to  the  pass  in  relays,  abandoned 
the  adventure  and  returned  home. 

From  here,  looking  upward,  it  seems  that  a  barrier  is  built  to  the  clouds; 
and  so  it  is.  For  almost  four  miles  we  "scratch  gravel,"  pull  each  other,  look 
for  shrubs  to  hold  onto,  cling  to  the  rocks,  and  climb,  climb,  climb  until  you 
would  think  the  perspiration  and  profanity  would  melt  the  snow-covered  trail. 
Looking  back  again,  we  see  that  we  have  ascended  almost  a  half  mile  upward, 
and  looking  toward  the  summit,  only  a  half  mile  distant,  is  an  ascent  of  over 
1 ,000  feet  more.  This  is  the  herculean  task,  the  almost  insurmountable  bar,  the 
turning  or  stopping  point  for  hundreds  of  tenderfeet.  But  those  with  courage 
and  strength  enough  remaining  crawl  with  their  bellies  to  the  earth  like  lizzards. 
kicking  toe  holds,  delving  into  the  ice  and  snow  for  almost  a  day  longer,  at  last 
reach  the  coveted  summit  of  Chilkoot  Pass  (Schwatka  says  the  Indians  called 
the  elevation  "Kotusk  Mountain").  No  human  being  could  face  some  of  the 
blizzards  that  come  through  it. 

History  will  never  record  the  names  or  numbers  of  all  that  gave  their  lives 
in  attempting  to  scale  this  pass.  The  river  claimed  some,  hardship  and  exposure 
dozens  more,  a  great  snow  slide  in  I  898  sixty-one  more,  and  a  misstep  ofttimes 
hurled  the  victim  to  the  dizzy  depth  hundreds  of  feet  below.  Two  hundred  lives 
would  be  placing  the  number  under  that  actually  known. 

My  friend,  who  went  over  the  trail  early  in  the  spring  of  '98,  says  "that 
the  best  investment  he  ever  made  was  the  small  sum  he  paid  to  an  enterprising 
owner  of  a  rope,  which  was  so  fastened  as  to  enable  the  climber  to  use  his  hands 
by  pulling  himself  up  on  the  rope,  and  that  this  rope  in  those  days  was  a  living 
scrambling  string  of  crazy  gold  seekers,  day  and  night,  and  reminded  him  of 
the  desperate,  senseless  salmon  trying  to  swim  up  a  dry  creek  bed  in  spawning 

Since  then  pack  trains,  better  trail,  Peterson's  rope  tramway  or  counter- 
weight tramway,  lessened  the  labor  and  risk,  and  robbed  the  dirty  Sheep  C  amp 
Indians  of  their  vocation.  Eventually  traffic  shifted  to  the  White  Pass  I  rail, 
and  later  still  the  White  Pass  and  ^'ukon  Railway  modernized  the  travel.  And 
now  the  old  Chilkoot  Trail  is  but  little  used,  and  Sheep  Camp.  Dyea,  Hainos 
Mission.  Stone  House,   and  other  familiar  stations  are   almost  abandoned. 

The  altitude  of  the  pass  has  been  given  all  the  way  from  3.500  to  4,300 
feet.      The  former  is  approximately  correct.      It  was  the   highest  of   the  passes. 

That  is  about  as  high  as  the  highest  mountains  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
United  States.      It  was  nearly  all  above  the  timber  line,  in  snow  and  ice. 

It  required  one  month  for  many  a  poor  miner  to  cany  his  provisions  to 
the  top. 

After  reaching  the  summit,  a  small  lake  named  Crater  Lake  was  visible, 
only  500  feet  below,  and  its  waters  flowed  away  toward  the  "^  ukon.  By  a 
sharp  descent  the  trail  soon  reached  and  passed  it,  then  became  an  easy  grade 
for  about  nine  miles  to  Lake  Lindeman,  where  the  waterway  to  the  Klondike 
and   ^  ukon    Basin   begins. 



Skaguay  (Skagway  Postofficc)  is  a  crcalurc  of  ihc  Klondike  rush,  during 
which  time  il  grow  from  a  tenl  lo  a  cily  of  tents,  with    10.000  population. 

In  those  boom  days  it  ex[)erienced  all  the  dance  hail,  gamhhng  hell,  murder 
and  other  vices  known  lo  lh<-  '49ers.  (  ri|)[)le  C  reek  and  every  other  great  mmmg 

The  clink  of  the  wine  glass,  click  of  roulette  wheel,  crack  of  the  assassin's 
revolver,  were  lost  in  the  sound  of  curses  from  the  card  table,  songs  and  laughturc 
Irom  the  dance  and  beer  halls,  and  the  din  of  a  wide-open  mining  camp. 

Men  forgot  their  fatigue  of  carrying  burdens  through  snow  to  the, 
iorgot  their  home,  marriage  vows  and  honor,  forgot  everything,  while  half-crazed 
with  vile  whisky,  they  hilariously  swung  the  scantily  dressed  but  well  painted 
dance  hall  girls  to  the  call  of  the  cjuadrille.  or  wagered  their  last  cent. 

At  the  very  top  of  this  vice  was  the  prince  of  gamblers.  Jefferson  R.  .Smith 
(Sopy  Smith).  He  had  trained  in  every  big  city  and  mining  camp  in  the  United 
Stales  and  Mexico;  many  murders  were  charged  to  him,  and  every  other  crime 
IS  well.      He  had  a  half-dozen  confederates-    ex-convicts      hut.   r-xpmen'-ed  like 

SKAC.IA  ^' 

himself;  through  them  he  murdered  on  the  trail,  and  robbed  and  gambled  in 
town.  He  was  a  good  schemer,  a  good  dresser,  good  shot,  good  gambler,  and 
a  charitable  giver.  When  it  became  known  that  his  men  were  murdeirng  and 
robbing  on  the  trail,  they  were  called  in;  when  the  shell  game  wore  out  it  was 
replaced  with  roulette;  from  one  thing  to  another,  he  robbed  all  the  people.  It 
is  said  he  was  the  first  man  to  wire  an  offer  of  men  to  the  President  for  the 
Spanish-American  War;  he  patriotically  galloped  through  the  streets  of  Skaguay 
July  4.   I  898.  just  four  days  before  he  was  shot. 

Sopy's  last  game  was  won  when  he  robbed  a  poor  miner  of  a  bag  of  gold  that 
he  had  just  brought  over  the  pass,  and  refused  to  return  it. 

The  people  selected  a  viligance  committee,  and  armed  themselves  for  a 
fight.  As  soon  as  Smith  learned  of  the  opposition  he  attempted  to  cowe  them 
and  met  the  guard.  Frand  Reid,  at  the  land  end  of  the  dock,  as  brave  as  himself. 
After  some  words.  Sopy  knocked  Reid  down  with  his  gun.  Reid's  gun  refused 
to  discharge,  but  just  at  the  same  instant  that  Smith  shot  him  in  the  groin  Reid's 
gun  discharged  and  he  shot  Smith  through  the  heart.  Smith's  followers  fled  to 
the  mountains,  but  were  rounded  up,  and  sent  out  of  the  country  or  to  prison  for 
long  terms.      About  two  miles  up  the  \X  hite  Horse  Trail  is  an  acre  of  graves, 


inclosing  the  bodies  of  men  dying  on  the  trail  or  in  this  camp  in  1897-8.  I  he 
one  most  conspicuously  marked  is  that  of  Frank  Reid ;  another  (no\s'  unmarked, 
the  markers  having  been  taken  for  souvenirs)    is  that  of  Smith. 

Many  of  the  signs  of  a  mining  camp  can  be  now  seen  about  the  city,  but 
it  has  settled  down  to  a  law-abiding  village  of  about  a  thousand  people,  with 
good  schools,  and  modern  conveniences. 

The  White  Pass  and  Yukon  Railroad  built  by  Heney  and  Hawkins,  now 
building  the  Copper  River  road  for  Guggenheims,  goes  over  the  old  Brackett 
pack  trail,  and  although  one  of  the  most  difficult  engineering  feats  in  railroading, 
and  also  one  of  the  most  expensive,  it  nevertheless  pays  for  itself  every  year. 
It  is  said  that  this  railroad  burned  two  thousand  dead  horses  that  had  died  in 
the  rush  over  this  trail.  The  number  of  human  lives  has  never  been  estimated; 
the   headboards   in   the   cemetery   tell   enough. 

Every  tourist  reaching  Skaguay  should  at  least  go  to  the  summit  of  White 
Pass,  2,500  feet  high  (Chilkoot  Pass  is  3,600).  On  this  miniature  railroad 
the  scenery  surpasses  that  of  any  railroad  in  the  world,  except  the  new  road  now 
building  on  Copper  River,  so  far  as  mountain  scenery  is  concerned. 

scKNKK^'  t>.\    I'm;  \\     r 


SI  I  KA. 

Sect-kali,  as  it  was  originally  (  .ilird  hv  llic  natives,  is  the  most  inlfrestinK, 
historic,  and  beautiful  of  all  the  places  in  Alaska. 

Sitka  was  a  thriving  town,  the  seat  of  Alaskan  government,  huilding  ships, 
making  plows,  picks,  spades,  etc.,  for  sale  in  Mexico  and  California  when  Chi- 
cago was  hut  an  Indian  village  and  the  country  helween  it  and  the  Pacific  was 
the  undisputed  lands  of  the   Indians. 

Some  of  the  old  buildings,  now  a  hundred  years  old,  still  stand;  the  old 
trading  post  store  house,  a  blockhouse,  another  large  building  at  one-time  head- 
quarters for  the  Russian  Alaska  Fur  Company,  and  now  a  hotel  at  which  Lady 
Franklin  stopped  while  searching  for  her  husband;  a  half-made  burr  for  grinding 
wheat  imported  from  Siberia,  and  parts  of  a  mill,  are  among  the  important 
Russian  relics.  The  first  location  of  a  fortified  trading  post  by  the  Russians 
(  I  799)  was  on  a  flat  purchased  of  the  Indians  about  eight  miles  north  of  the 
present  Sitka,  and  called  Archangel  Gabriel,  which  was  robbed  and  burned  and 
the  occupants  murdered  or  taken  prisoners  by  the  natives  in  I  802.  I  he  facts 
regarding  that  massacre  as  told  by  an  eye-witness  equal  in  barbarism  the  most 
horrible  Indian  massacres  of  the  East.  The  unfortunate  victims  were  tortured 
to  death;  not  even  the  cattle  escaped.  The  valuable  furs  were  removed  to  their 
own  canoes  and  the  buildings  burned.  In  I  804  Baranoff  returned  to  rebuild  it 
with  I  20  Russians,  on  the  Ekaterina  and  Alexandra,  to  which  800  Aleuts  in 
300  bidarkas  were  joined,  all  being  assisted  by  the  sloop  Neva.  The  Indians, 
with  the  assistance  of  seme  Russian  deserters,  were  fortified  at  Indian  River,  to 
which  siege  was  laid,  and  the  location  of  the  present  Sitka  taken  after  a  stubborn 
resistance,  and  named  New  Archangel. 

The  Indians  never  again  secured  control,  although  in  1  878,  after  the  sol- 
diers had  been  removed  from  Sitka,  they  demanded  the  lives  of  six  men  in  return 
for  six  of  their  number  who  were  lost  at  sea  while  working  for  a  white  employer, 
and  being  refused  they  conspired  to  retake  the  town,  and  after  completing  all 
preparations  returned  in  force  by  the  way  of  the  Hot  Springs,  about  twenty  miles 
southward,  where  they  killed  a  man  by  the  name  of  Brown,  and  arriving  before 
Sitka  demanded  five  more.  Before  this  massacre  could  be  carried  out,  and  by 
urgent  request.  Great  Britain  sent  the  Osprey  from  Esquimault,  to  which  friendly 
act  the  Sitka  of  today  owes  its  existence,  and  for  which,  with  hundreds  of  other 
neglects,   our  own   government  ought   to  be  ashamed. 

Nothing  remains  to  be  seen  at  the  old  site  of  Sitka,  except  a  hunter  s  cabin, 
and  grass  as  high  as  a  man's  head.  Nothing  remains  at  the  old  Redoubt,  as 
much  farther  south  of  Sitka,  except  mere  traces  of  the  old  fortifications  and  ship 
ways.  Nothing  remains  of  the  Indian  River  fortifications,  except  a  mark  to 
identify  them.  The  ways  of  the  Sitka  shipyard  are  lost  in  the  sand;  the  old  flour 
mill  was  replaced  by  a  sawmill,  which  has  recently  been  modernized,  although 
the  same  old  flume  furnishes  water  for  it;  the  once  beautiful  cemetery,  forested 
with  Greek  crosses,  is  now  overgrown  with  brush  and  \\eeds;  but  one  of  the  circle 
of  blockhouses  remains;  Kath-le-an  and  Anna-Hootz  have  surrendered,  and  their 
followers  are  members  of  the  Russian  or  Protestant  Churches;  Baranoff  Castle 
of  history,  70x140  feet  of  logs,  the  center  of  gay  and  official  life,  as  well  as 
drunken  orgies,  from  1813  to  1894,  when  it  was  burned,  has  been  replaced  by 
a  spacious  residence,  now  occupied  by  Prof.  C.  C.  Georgeson.  head  of  the  Agri- 
cultural Department  of  Alaska. 

So  the  Sitka  of  old.  like  its  founders,  will  soon  be  only  seen  in  pictures. 
read  in  books,  or  heard  in  tales  of  tradition. 

A  federal  barracks,  coaling  station,  cable,  wireless,  agricultural  experi- 
mental  station,   marshal's  office,   customs   house,   magnetic   station,   electric   lights. 


modern  residences,  churches  and  schools  are  indications  ol  a  new  era.  But  the 
old  and  new  are  so  blended  as  to  produce  a  reverential  respect  not  elsewhere  felt 
in  Alaska. 

On  one  side  of  the  town  is  the  Indian  River  Park,  where  a  large  number 
of  totems,  presented  by  the  natives  to  Governor  Brady,  are  now  preserved. 

High  above  the  little  "Naples"  is  a  circle  of  ever  snow-crowned  peaks; 
back  on  the  sidehill  a  thousand  Russian  graves,  over  which  Greek  crosses  hold 
their  arms;  in  front  is  an  island-dotted  harbor,  which  Schwatka  has  said  could 
only  be  mapped  with  a  pepper  box,  and  for  beauty  has  no  peer  in  the  world; 
off  toward  sea  is  Mt.  Edgcomb,  an  active  volcano  until  a  little  over  fifty  years 
ago,  of  which  the  natives  have  many  legends.  Surely,  Sitka  is  entitled  to  all 
the  beautiful  names  bestowed  upon  it. 

The  industrial  school  for  natives  started  by  Brady  is  now  the  foremost 
native  school  in  Alaska,  with  a  yearly  attendance  of  about  200,  its  full  capacity. 


Bishop  Roe,  head  of  the  Episcopal  Church  in  Alaska,  lives  here  in  a  beautilul 
home  (he  is  perhaps  the  best  posted  man  regarding  the  natives  in  Alaska).  I  he 
Sheldon  Jackson  Museum  contains  a  collection  worth  a  hundred  times  more  than 
the  Government  so  begrudgingly  paid  for  the  expense  of  collecting  it. 

On  one  side  of  the  town  is  a  well  kept  street,  on  both  sides  of  which  are 
modern  houses,  in  which  may  be  found  the  usual  furnishings  of  a  white  man  s 
home.      These  are  schooled  natives,  and  it  is  known  as  the  "cottagers. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  town  is  the  native  village,  with  square,  unpaiiitod. 
unfurnished  (except  possibly  a  stove  and  table)  frame  houses  in  rows  parallel 
with  high  tide,  all  facing  the  water;  this  is  known  as  the  "Ranchc." 

Indian  tragedies:  tales  of  love  of  native  or  creole  by  ofTicer.  soldier  or  trap- 
per; of  murder,  suicide  and  assassination,  and  of  Russian  tyranny  and  native 
conspiracies,    are   now   just   old   enough   to   invite   the   imagination   of   the   novelist. 


I  lie  1)11(1  .tiid  M-.i  lilc  IS  nion*  .!(  live  llwiii  al  any  oth«'r  point  found  \)y  us 
m  Alaska,  and  more  convenienl  lo  sludy,  for  ihe  scientist. 

I  he  balmy  atmosphere  from  the  sea,  the  quiet  of  the  village  and  the  beauty 
of  snowy  mountains,  green  forests  and  blue  waters,  dotted  with  rock-made  islands, 
ought  to  be  inspiring  enough  for  artist  and  poet. 

I  he  hot  springs  lo  the  southward,  now  in  charge  ol  Dr.  Goddard  from 
I  acoma.  and  which  I  found  to  be  145  degrees  F.,  were  known  to  llic  Indians 
to  cure  rheumatism,  and  to  the  Russians  to  cure  gout. 

So  that  everything,  in  profusion,  is  piled  up  here  waiting  for  people  of  art, 
culture,  leisure  and  science. 

Historians  have  written  much  ol  Baranoll.  and  the  missionaries.  Dr.  Shel- 
don Jackson,  Rev.  John  G.  Brady.  Rev.  W.  W.  Kirby,  James  McNair  Wright 
and  others,  have  informed  us  quite  fully  concerning  the  natives,  and  to  these  I 
must  refer  the  reader  for  want  of  space. 

lo  the  sportsman,  I  vouch  that  deer  may  be  seen  and  killed  within  a  mile 
or  two  of  Sitka:  we  lound  them  lame  enough  for  photographing.  At  the  Squash- 
inski  River,  with  the  assistance  of  the  Sitka  Fishing  Club,  in  two  hours  we 
caught  with  trout  rods    153  trout,  weighing  247  pounds. 

Sitka  is  so  different  from  all  other  Alaska  towns;  every  one  has  time; 
every  one  is  sociable,  and  talent  is  plentiful ;  it  is  the  most  ideal  place  on  the 
coast  for  a  month's  summer  recreation. 

Mr.  deGrofT,  who  has  done  so  much  for  Alaska,  together  with  the  Indian 
discoverer,  owns  about  the  only  mine  of  importance  in  this  district ;  it  is  about 
thirty  miles  north  on  Chicagof  Island. 

The  silver-mounted,  gold-haloed  picture  ol  Madonna  and  costly  robes,  in 
the  Russian  Church;  the  museum,  school,  park,  and  curio  stores,  are  of  first 
mlerest  to  the  tourist. 

Life  in  Sitka  is  idleness  in  winter;  only  the  small  weekly  boat  calls  at  the 
dock.  Only  the  precipitation,  in  the  form  of  a  misty  rain,  must  keep  busy,  as 
it  has  a  perpetual  contract  to  deliver  eight  feet  of  water  per  annum. 

Down  at  the  "Ranche  "  may  be  found  venison,  salmon,  seal,  Indians,  and 
dogs,  all  smoked  by  the  same  fire. 

A  deer  may  be  purchased  on  the  street  for  two  or  three  dollars,  and  fish 
for  a  few  cents.  I  caught  crabs  enough  for  a  party  of  seventeen  in  sight  of  Sitka 
as  fast  as  I  could  lift  them  into  the  boat. 

Without  moving  from  my  tracks,  I  noted  two  kinds  of  Huckleberries ;  blue 
and  red  Raspberries,  Salmon  berries.  Crab  apples,  Alder,  Elder.  Hemlock, 
Alaska  Spruce,  Timothy,  Red-top,  Gooseberries,  a  wild  Black  Currant,  and 
other  plants  strange  to  me.  Back  of  the  town  is  a  tract  of  spongy,  water-soaked 
tundra  (which  increases  as  we  go  northward),  from  which  I  plucked  twelve 
varieties  of  moss.  On  the  rocks  of  Japonski  in  the  harbor  I  gathered  nineteen 
kinds  of  sea  moss,   and  numerous  species  of  shellfish. 

Five  thousand  big.  black,  noisy  ravens  constitute  the  board  ol  health  and 
garbage  collectors  of  the  town,  and  they  do  the  work  thoroughly. 

I  lived  a  week  among  them,  and  learned  eleven  difFereiu  calls.  I  saw 
them  turn  complete  summersaults  in  the  air,  fly  with  their  bellies  upward,  walk 
into  the  kitchen  doors  for  garbage,  play  with  the  dogs,  and  do  wiser  stunts  than 
I  have  ever  seen  other  birds  do.  I  am  not  surprised  that  the  Indians  selected 
it  as  an  ancestor,  and  crown  their  totems  with  it.  Eagles  are  also  very  numerous 
and  wise,  but  silent  and  sullen. 

The  natives  of  Sitka,  consisting  of  two  tribes,  are  said  to  come  from  near 
Nome,  which  may  be  the  reason  for  the  lack  of  totems  in  their  village,  and  their 


inability  to  understand  other  native  tongues.  1  heir  boats,  shacks,  customs  and 
features  are  quite  similar  to  the  other  tribes  along  the  coast,  and  they  possess  a 
strong  Mongolian  likeness.  The  Russian  church  claims  a  native  and  creolc 
membership  of  700.  I  believe  the  natives  alone  of  Sitka  equal  that  number. 
As  a  whole,  they  are  more  civilized  than  any  other  village  in  Alaska  south  of 
Cooks  Inlet. 

As  we  sailed  northward  to  Icy  Straits  we  came  to  a  considerable  native 
town,  Hoonah,  where  the  baskets  are  good,  and  cheaper.  We  soon  entered 
Cross  Sound,  where  the  first  white  man,  Mr.  Chirkoff,  discovered  Alaska  (July 
17,  1741).  He  sent  his  first  mate  with  ten  men  ashore  for  water.  They  did 
not  return.  The  next  day  he  sent  the  second  mate  and  ten  more  men  ashore  for 
fresh  water,  and  they  never  returned.  The  next  day  the  Indians  appeared  hos- 
tile, and  he  went  to  sea.  The  conduct  of  the  natives  near  by  shown  to  \\  hidby 
a  few  years  later  would  make  it  appear  that  the  Indians  fearlessly  murdered  the 


In  going  from  Cross  Sound  westward  to  Valdez  and  intervening  points,  it 
was  apparent  that  a  radical  change  had  occurred.  For  hundreds  of  miles  hardly 
an  Indian  or  miner  or  cannery  or  river  or  bay  may  be  seen;  there  are  no  places 
for  them.  Nothing  but  an  ice-capped  plateau  on  the  right,  and  a  boundless 
ocean  on  the  left.  Although  the  geographers  have  named  it  Gulf  of  Alaska,  its 
entrance  is  500  miles  wide  and  it  is  nothing  but  pure,  unalloyed  ocean. 

The  Elias  Range  caps  the  ice  field;  its  lofty  peaks — Mt.  Crillion,  rj,90n 
feet;  Mt.  Fairweather,  15,293  feet;  Mt.  Vancouver,  15.666  feet;  Mt.  Cook. 
15,758  feet;  Mt.  St.  Elias,  18,024  feet,  and  Mt.  Logan,  19,500  feel— are 
jewels  in  the  crown  of  this  crescent  ot  ice  250  miles  long. 

I  climbed  a  small  mountain  sufficiently  high  to  get  a  full  view  of  the  range, 
and  there  before  me  stretched  glacier  enough  to  bury  Switzerland;  and  from  this 
giant  field  of  ice  issued  such  branches  as  Muir  Glacier,  three  oi  lour  mi'es  long 
and  as  many  hundred  feet  above  the  sea;  Malaspina,  70  miles  long  and  almost 
2,000  feet  high  at  the  water;  and  others  smaller  but  yet  so  large  as  to  make 
Switzerland's   largest   unworthy   a   name. 

Yes,  this  is  a  different  country;  it  is  such  an  abrupt  change  from  the  count- 
less bays,  islands  and  timber-covered  slopes,  to  this  ice-covered  range,  fearlessly 
and  precipitiously  descending  into  an  islandless  ocean.  This  range  of  mountains 
is  all  different  from  the  coast  range.  The  inhospitable  shore  is  a  danger  to  e\eiv 
storm-caught  craft  near  it.  It  for  all  time  has  been  a  barrier  to  the  race  south. 
They  were  not  able  to  protect  the  coast  here,  and  hence  came  the  Athabascans 
from  the  interior  of  America  through  the  valleys  leading  to  Cooks  Inlet. 

If  the  St.  Elias  Range  is  the  end  of  the  Coast  Mountains,  then  Ml.  Mi 
Kinley  is  the  end  of  the  Rockies — 20,460  feet  hight  is  the  summit,  the  highest 
point,  the  very  climax  of  mountaindom  on  this  North  American  Continent.  In 
the  same  country  is  the  vent  pipe  for  this  climax.  Mt.  Wrangell,  an  active  vol- 
cano; the  wierdest  reports  oi  its  activity  can  be  heard  every  year  now.  Last 
summer  Mt.  St.  Augustine  and  Mt.  Iliamma  were  active,  and  the  natives  had 
numerous  tears  and  traditionary  tales  concerning  them. 

Ml.   ST.   LLIAS. 

In  July,  1741.  wlieii  Behring  discovered  Alaska,  one  ol  the  Inst  .uid  most 
attractive  features  noticed  by  him  from  the  sea  near  Valdez,  was  what  appeared 
to  him,  and  to  every  one  else  lor  a  hundred  and  fifty  years  after,  the  highest 
peak    in    North    America.       He    gave    it    the    beautiful    name    of    St.    Llias    be- 

(ausc   he  clis( Dvcicd   il   on  S.iinl    I   clay.      Any   onr  who  sees   it   will   ( orm-cif 
thai  it  is  moic  .i|>|)ii)|)i  i.ilciv  n.uii'-d  most  Alaska  points, 

I  he  liuliaiis  look  upon  it  with  as  much  awe  as  wr  rjo.  aiifl  tell  Iraclitionary 
talcs   ol    its  ciuplions,   supciluiman  |)owcrs,   etc. 

I  l)(li<\c  ilic  New  ^  ork  I  imes  Expedition,  including  Schwatka  and  Seaton- 
K.arr.  made  the  lirst  attempt  to  climh  it.  in  1886.  They  described  the  large 
River  \  ahtse,  which  flows  for  miles  under  the  ice.  Schwatka  rlimhed  the  high- 
est, ascending  7.200  feet ;  a  higher  ascent  was  impossible. 

In  1 888  the  I  opham  expedition  from  England  tried  it.  Up  lo  this  time 
it  was  thought  a  large  crater  appeared  on  the  side,  and  it  does  now  look  so  from 
the  bottom;  but  on  arriving  at  that  point  I  opham  found  it  was  a  separate  peak, 
and  no  crater  at  all.  I  hose  attempting  its  ascent  have  concluded  that  it  was 
not  a  volcanic  mountain,  although  I  cbenkoff.  a  Russian,  reported  it  as  smoking, 
in  1839,  and  its  eruption,  in  1847;  and  other  reports  have  been  made  of  vol- 
canic action.  Topham  named  this  point  Haydens  Peak.  He  reached  I  I  ,460 
feet  altitude. 

In  June,  1 890.  the  National  Geographical  Society  and  the  Geological 
Survey  united  in  their  effort  to  ascend.  Prof.  I.  C.  Russell,  glacier  expert, 
headed  the  expedition.  He  landed  on  \  akutat  Bay,  made  a  long  journey 
across  the  Malaspina  Glacier,  named  Mt.  Logan  in  Augusta  Range,  and  Owen 
and  Irving  in  Cook  Range,  but  failed  to  scale  St.  Elias.  His  reports  and  in- 
formation were  so  valuable  that  he  was  returned  the  next  year,  I  89  I ,  ancf  made 
another  attempt  to  ascend  the  peak,  reaching  an  elevation  of  14,500  feet,  and 
fixed  the  height  of  the  peak  at  18,100  feet.  On  his  return  he  made  a  detailed 
exploration  of  Disenchantment   Bay. 

Shortly  after,  the  Italian,  Duke  ol  Abruzzi  (recently  prominent  in  the 
newspapers  of  the  world  as  fiance  of  Catherine  Elkins),  with  the  courase  and 
system  of  the  general  that  he  is,  the  assistance  of  young  men  like  himself,  and 
an  early  start,  succeeded  in  reaching  the  apex,  and  from  it  beheld  one  ol  the 
greatest  penoramic  views  ever  coming  to  the  eyes  of  an  earthly  being.  He  stood 
with  his  whole  party  on  the  pinnacle ;  before  them  stretched  the  Malaspina  Gla- 
cier 80  miles  long,  and  dozens  of  others,  smaller,  of  course,  but  still  large  enough 
to  cover  Switzerland,  with  its  world-famous  glaciers.  Mt.  Parouse,  Mt.  Crillion, 
Mt.  Fairweather  and  other  mighty  peaks  lay  below  his  feet;  whole  ranges, 
patches  of  forests,  rivers  like  silver  threads,  and  fields  of  clouds  here  and  there; 
on  the  east  Canada,  north  ^  ukon  Basin,  west  Copper  River  and  Cooks  Inlet 
country,  and  south  the  Pacific  Ocean.  No  man  can  behold  such  a  wonderful 
sight  and  not  be  a  bigger,  better  and  nobler  being;  is  it  worth  ttie  risk,  expense, 
and  suffering?     Ask  God;  man  is  too  small  to  answer  it. 

At  night  time  and  on  very  cold  days  black  snow  worms  would  appear  in 
the  snows  that  cover  the  glaciers.  Sand  stone  and  lime  stone  and  sea  shells  of 
known  species  of  this  age  are  found  on  the  summits  of  the  peaks  of  this  range, 
indicating  that  the  mountains  are  not  of  great  age.  Ingre  Vittorio  Novarese. 
Royal  Geologist  of  Rome,  who  examined  the  collection  of  rocks  gathered  by  the 
Duke,  differs  from  Prof.  Israel  C.  Russell  on  some  of  the  intricate  questions  of 
age.  priority  of  upheaval  and  the  like,  but  I  believe  it  will  be  conceded  by  all 
that  an  intrusnc  diorite  occupies  the  heart  of  the  primary  upheaval,  similar  to  the 
Coast  Range. 

For  the  student  or  alpinist,  much  ol  interest  has  been  written  about  the 
Fairweather  and  St.  Elias  Ranges  and  the  glacier  cap  by  the  members  of  the 
expeditions  above  referred  to.  particularly  Russell.  Topham.  Seaton-Karr. 
Abruzzi.  and  by  Dr.   Cook  and  the  Harriman  Expedition  subsequently. 



From  Cross  Sound  to  Cook's  Inlet  is  the  home  ol  the  largest  glaciers  in 
the  world,  outside  of  the  polar  regions.  The  warm  air  of  the  Japanese  Current, 
loaded  with  all  the  water  it  can  carry,  meets  the  cold  air  of  the  summits  of  the 
highest  mountain  range  in  North  America,  and  precipitates  its  burden  on  the 
coast  side  of  the  mountains. 

Glaciers  are  caused  by  the  accumulating  of  more  snow  in  winter  than  can 
melt  in  summer,  and  glaciers  of  various  sizes  are  found  on  all  the  higher  peaks 
in  the  United  States. 

Glaciers  like  those  of  Greenland  once  almost  covered  our  whole  country. 
Their  indelible  marks  are  as  enduring  as  time,  and  rocks  as  large  as  a  farm 
were  picked  up  in  or  near  .Alaska  and  deposited  in  the  United  States.  They 
gouged,  chiseled  and  ground  the  softer  rocks  and  earth  from  the  highlands,  leav- 
ing only  mountain  peaks  of  granite  for  summits,  and  leveled  and  rounded  the 
plains  and  valleys  convenient  for  the  advent  of  vegitation,  animals  and  men. 
changing  the  contour  and  topography  of  the  country  from  Cape  Barrow  to  the 
Ohio  River. 

The  rainfall  and  snow  I  all  in  Alaska  behind  the  Elias  Range  and  on  the 
Arctic  is  not  great,  therefore  but  few  small  glaciers  are  found.  This  ice  cap  is 
the  remnant  perhaps  of  the  parent  that  covered  the  country,  and  made  much  of 
the  placer  gold.  It  is  rapidly  receding  at  many  places.  One  author  made  a 
careful  estimate  of  Muir  Glacier,  stating  that  at  the  water  it  was  225  feet  above, 
450  below,  and  during  his  stay  of  30  days  emptied  149,000.000  cubic  feet 
per  day  of  bergs.  This  glacier  now  has  receded  to  insignificance,  compared  with 
its  former  flow.  There  are  numerous  others,  ancient  children  of  the  eternal  snows 
of  the  summits  of  this  range,  leveling  everything  in  their  way  to  the  ocean,  in 
which,  with  a  roar  like  the  artillery  of  a  great  siege,  they  deposit  morain,  trees 
and  debris,  upon  which  some  day  rnay  rest  cities. 

Constantly  as  the  clock,  these  rivers  of  ice,  covered  with  spires,  spirettes, 
steeples,  domes,  minarets,  pinnacles  and  needle  points  of  ice,  criss-crossed  with 
gorges,  fissures,  crevasses  and  cracks;  honeycombed  with  rivers  and  rushing 
torrents,  and  streaked  with  long  lines  of  morain,  plow  their  way  to  the  ocean. 
Some  of  the  glaciers  are  "dead,"  that  is,  they  do  not  now  reach  the  sea;  others, 
in  pearllike  chunks,  as  at  Hubbel,  or  shaded  in  blue  from  a  light  summer  sky  to 
a  dark  indigo,  as  at  Taku,  drop  into  it.  Woe  be  to  the  person  on  the  shore 
or  near  it  in  such  place  as  Yakutat  Bay  when  a  berg  the  size  of  a  twenty-story 
office  building  drops  in.  The  reverberating  roar  and  the  grinding  of  bergs  on 
such  occasion  is  beyond  my  ability  to  describe. 


Cros  Sound  is  the  northerly  end  of  the  "inside  passage.  '  On  the  southward 
IS  the  picturesque  timber-covered  island  -i  ringed  coast — home  of  the  Siwash. 
To  the  northward  is  five  hundred  miles  of  islandless  ocean,  beating  at  the  |)recipi 
tous  foot  of  a  Greenlandish  glaciated  plateau,  indented  by  Liluva.  Dry.  lev 
and  Yakutat  Bays. 

Lituya  IS  as  tide-washed,  surt -beaten  and  dangerous  now  as  i(  \\.i>  wlnii 
La  Perouse  visited  it  in  I  786.  who  had  the  misfortune  of  losing  some  ol  his  men. 
to  whom  he  erected  a  monument  on  Monument  Island.  Near  by  some  jilacer 
prospects  give  promise  of  a  good  return,  but  to  gel  to  them  with  provisions  and  get 
in  and  out  of  the  bay  safely  is  a  greater  chance  than  even  the  most  daring  miner 
cares  to  take.  The  few  Indians  that  live  there  have  not  improved  since  La 
Perouse  described  them.  Dixon,  who  stopepd  there  in  I  787,  verified  the  reports 
of  his  French  predecessor,  and  one  of  the  miners  working  there  iiow  lurnished  to 


me  a  full  report  nl  native  life  to  date,  which  is  littlo  if  any  hotter  and  too  shocking 
for  |)ul)lication.  Dry  Bay.  seventy-five  miles  north  of  Lituya.  and  Icy  Bay. 
the  same  distance  northwest  of  Yakutat,  hardly  deserve  space  here. 

^'akutat  Bay  has  been  a  trading  post  for  while  traders  durinK  the  last 
hundred  years,  and  for  savaRcs  indefinitely  longer.  It  is  the  home  of  the  hair 
seal,  for  which  natives  of  the  north,  south,  coast  and  interior  come.  Athabascan. 
I  hlinkil.   Aleut   and   l.squimaux  considered  it   the  terminus  of  their  sojourn   from 


I  he  result  ol  this  cominglinR  of  natives  is  perhaps  the  cause  of  the  differ- 
ence between  the  Yakutat  Indian  and  other  natives — they  are  a  combination  of 
all  others.  \  hey  show  some  of  the  copper  color  of  the  interior  Athabascan. 
Some  of  the  round  face,  yellow  complexion  and  oblique  eyes  of  the  Monoglian- 
Siwash  and  Aleut-Labrets.  and  customs  of  the  Esquimaux  and  the  vices  of  them 
all.  I  hey  now  build,  and  for  as  far  back  as  we  have  record,  built,  large  single- 
room  houses,  as  do  the  Siwash.  and  lived  in  them  in  a  sort  of  communistic  Esqui- 
maux manenr.  1  heir  basket  weaving  is  a  link  between  the  coarser  work  of  the 
Siwash  and  finer  work  of  the  Aleut.  Their  religion,  if  they  ever  had  any,  is 
a  mongrel  like  themselves.  They  do  not  have  totems  and  badges  and  long  cere- 
monies, nor  hold  certain  animals  too  sacred  for  food,  as  the  Siwash  do. 

About  all  the  first  navigators  and  traders  called  at  Yakutat.  and  each 
applied  a  new  name.  Before  them  the  natives  in  different  parts  of  Alaska 
applied  names  of  their  own  selection,  but  the  name  surviving  is  the  most  suitable, 
as  it  is  the  bay  of  the  Yakutat  Indian.  Monti  Bay.  Admiralty  Bay  or  Bering 
Bay  would  fail  to  convey  the  local  color  that  is  included  in  the  word  ^  akutat. 

One  of  the  Russian  convict  colonies  was  planted  here  on  the  site  of  Mul- 
grave  in  I  796,  the  remains  of  which,  like  the  villages  of  the  Indians  who 
destroyed  it  in   1805,  lie  rotting  and  obliterated. 

The  village  of  Y  akutat  near  the  old  settlement  has  been  and  is  of  some 
commercial  importance.  Mr.  Mills'  store,  the  Simpson  mill,  cannery,  store  and 
railroad,  and  the  ocacsional  call  of  a  boat  disturb  the  caressing  spirit  of  Mor- 
pheus. A  trip  up  the  litle  railroad,  which  is  the  only  fish  rialroad  in  the  world, 
to  the  cannery  and  to  the  site  of  the  Indian  and  Russian  settlements  will  satisfy 
the  tourist  ordinarily.  But  the  nature  lover  will  marvel  at  the  glaciers  and  gla- 
ciers, the  bobbing  heads  of  the  hair  seal,  the  roar  and  grinding  of  the  bergs 
coming  down  from  Disenchantment  Bay ;  the  tents  and  bark  huts  of  the  Indians, 
where  the  women  render  seal  fat.  scrape  skins,  etc..  while  the  men  kill  a  supply 
of  seal  for  the  coming  season.  The  seal  furnishes  oil  for  fuel,  light  and  cooking. 
In  fact,  it  answers  all  the  purposes  of  lard,  butter,  coal  oil  and  molasses.  The 
mission-taught  Indian  lad  on  graduation  day  would  prefer  the  rancid  seal  oil 
to  maple  molasses  on  his  pancakes,  or  anything  else  for  that  matter.  It  is  rubbed 
in,  warmed  in,  smoked  in  and  fed  in  to  the  Indian  from  birth  to  death.  Its  use 
to  the  native  is  greater  than  all  other  animals  or  fish,  not  excepting  the  salmon. 

Malaspina,  an  Italian  seeking  the  Northwest  Passage  in  I  792  for  Spain, 
thought  he  had  found  it  when  he  entered  ^  akutat  Bay,  the  upper  end  of  which 
he  named  Disenchantment  Bay.  One  ot  the  arms  of  the  latter  is  named  Russell 
Fiord,  in  honor  of  Israel  C.  Russell,  a  glacier  expert  who  exammed  it  very 
closely  on  return  from  his  attempt  to  ascend  Mount  St.  Elias  in  1891.  In 
Malaspina's  time  the  glacier  must  have  been  lower  and  in  one  mass,  while  in 
Russell's  time  it  was  in  three  divisions,  named  Dalton,  Hubbard  and  Nunatak, 
and  still  IS  retreating  as  all  glaciers  on  the  Pacific  are  doing.  Here  are  polar  ice 
caps  in  sight  from  a  coast  with  a  moderate  climate;  Alps  that  would  make 
Switzerland  lok  like  a  toyland,  within  easy  reach  of  everyone,  and  a  hunter's 
paradise  at  a  moderate  cost.  Why  go  abroad  when  you  can  explore  country 
and  ascend  peaks  never  tread  upon  by  man? 



Well  do  I  remember  the  starting  of  Katalla  in  1904,  and  "wildcatting" 
the  Bering  oil  field — the  leasmg  and  assignmg — the  rows  of  sample  bottles,  the 
knowing  arguments,  the  maps  and  hopes  which  came  before  me  for  my  services 
as  a  lawyer  long  before  I  had  any  idea  of  an  investigation  for  book  purposes. 
I  was  a  native  of  the  East,  where  coal,  oil  and  gas  was  so  common  that 
the  prevailing  idea  "that  oil  came  from  the  coal  deposits  and  gas  from  the  oil' 
was  born  or  soaked  into  me.  And  although  colege  theories  had  almost  eradicated 
it,  it  came  back  stronger  than  ever  when  I  saw  the  seeping  oil,  and  found  that 
it  tasted,  smelled  and  burned  the  same  as  at  home,  and  was  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  a  hard  coal  field,  quite  the  same.  But  an  oil  field,  or  a  coal  mine,  or 
Indian  village,  or  most  anything,  is  a  sort  of  relief  from  the  leagues  and  leagues 
of  snow-covered  mountains  between  Sitka  and  Katalla. 

The  known  Alaskan  petroleum-bearing  areas  are  confined  to  the  Pacific 
Coast  regions.  One  is  at  Comptroller  Bay,  with  an  eastern  extension  at  ^'aktag; 
the  other  lies  along  the  margin  of  Alaska  Peninsula.  At  both  there  are  strong 
seepages.  At  the  former  two  wells  have  been  drilled  at  Katalla  and  produce 
some  oil,  and  other  tests  have  been  made,  but  the  production  thus  far  can  hardly 
have  a  commercial  importance,  although  I  believe  it  will  have  in  time. 

The  old  village  of  Kayak  is  near  by.  The  name,  as  well  as  the  architec- 
ture of  the  Indian  houses,  and  little  grave  houses  on  posts,  and  the  customs  ot 
the  natives  will  easily  convince  the  visitor  on  sight  that  they  are  not  Siwas^. 
There  is  a  feeling  that  more  than  the  usual  amount  of  Aleut,  and  Russian  blood, 
customs  and   religion   are  mixed   in   them  than   in  any  others   to   the   southward. 

Cape  Suckling  was  one  of  the  best  known  of  the  early  landmarks  on  this 
coast.  These  great  glaciers  have  washed,  shoved  and  hauled  millions  of  tons 
of  dirt  and  rock  to  the  sea,  and  in  many  places  for  two  to  six  miles  from  shore 
will  be  apparent  beds  of  this  deposit,  and  at  almost  every  shore  point  where  one 
attempts  to  land  he  will  have  as  much  trouble  with  the  mud  and  silt  as  he  will 
with  the  surf  or  rapidly  moving  tides. 

Kayak  is  on  one  of  the  islands  at  the  entrance  of  Controller  Bay  and  sup- 
posed point  of  Behring's  first  approach  to  the  shores  of  Alaska,  July  I  8th,  1  74  I  , 
and  of  which  Cook  took  possession  for  England  in  1  778. 


While  nature  has  with  lavish  hand  piled  valuable  coal  on  her  very  sea 
coast  and  near  great  copper  mines,  she  has  been  stingy  with  her  harbor-making 
shovel.  Comptroller  Bay  is  open  to  the  ills  of  the  sea,  and  what  Katalla  did  to 
Kayak,  Cordova  repealed  to  Katalla,  all  because  of  no  harbor  protection.  At 
least  four  railroad  companies  are  now  working  on  roadbeds  or  field  surveys  in 
this  oil  and  coal  field,  with  an  apparent  intention  to  haul  the  coal  a  little  farther 
to  a  safe  harbor.  Even  now  it  is  a  guess  to  select  the  spot  destined  to  be  the 
sea  terminus  for  the  oil  and  anthracite  coal,  for  both  of  which  the  consumer, 
from  Mexico  to  Nome,  is  eagerly  waiting.  Natives  and  native  villages.  Russians 
and  Russian  villages,  promoters  and  promoters'  villages,  have  in  turn  thrived 
and  fallen  within  the  Prince  William  Sound  country.  After  a  long  and  uselul 
life  to  Alaska  as  a  missionary  and  governor.  Rev.  John  G.  Brady  may  trace 
his  downfall,  and  Promoter  Reynolds  his  insanity,  to  the  luring  prospects  of 
these  shores.  On  the  other  hand,  the  profits  of  every  considerable  trading  com- 
pany are  greatly  augmented;  the  income  of  the  big  mills  and  canneries  are 
fabulously  large,  and  prospects  to  them  are  copper  lined  and  coal  laden. 

Mountains  of  copper  and  gold,  placer  and  quartz,  behind  the  range  will 
perhaps  soon   be   the  largest   producers   in   the  Territory.       Fo  handle   them,   the 


GuKKcnheims  and  Morgans  liavr  omi)loyecl  ihc  millions  ol  New  York  C  ity  and 
lh«'  hrains  of  such  men  as  I  iaukms  and  I  Icncy,  to  whom  no  passes  are  too  high 
or   rivers  deej)  to  cross. 

Ihc  Alaska  Home  |-(ailway.  promoted  hy  llenry  D.  Reynolds,  attracted 
the  press  of  the  country  hecause  of  advertising;  the  purse  of  the  Bostomans 
because  it  was  vouched  for  by  such  men  as  Lx-Governor  Brady;  the  people  of 
Seattle  and  1  acoma  because  Reynolds  threatened  to  withdraw  his  boats  from 
Seattle  and  land  them  at  lacoma,  as  Seattle  refused  and  Tacoma  endorsed  his 
promotion  scheme;  and  the  whole  country  because  of  the  Keystone  Canyon  fight 
between  the  forces  of  the  competing  railroads  in  the  mountains  above  Valde/ 
(a  similar  liattle  between  the  Guggenheims  and  the  Bruner  Company  had  taken 
place  a  few  months  prior),  which  was  the  bursting  point  of  his  development  and 
of  many  of  his  stock  jjurchasers.  The  next  chapter  was  the  disgrace  of  Brady 
(those  knowing  him  best  believe  him  innocenl  of  fraudulent  intentions),  the 
stampede  of  laborers  clamoring  for  their  hard-earned  pay,  the  long  legal  fight, 
the  reorganization  now  going  into  effect,  and  the  insanity  of  Reynolds,  which 
many  Alaskans  believe  to  be  a  penitentiary  dodge. 

The  town  of  Valde?  endorsed  the  scheme;  women's  guilds,  school  children 
and  everyone  subscribed   for  stock ;    hotels,  papers  and  a  bank  were  purchased. 


The  town  voted  a  franchise  on  every  street  to  Reynolds,  and  pledged  the  life 
of  the  town  to  his  support.  Some  day  the  largest  city  in  Alaska  will  be  on  this 
sound.  Valdez  may  have  lost  that  chance  by  playing  its  highest  card  with 
Reynolds,  and  it  may  yet  win  with  the  reorganization.  Nowhere  in  the  world 
are  events  of  importance  crowding  each  other  more  than  here  today.  It  will  be 
an  interesting  rivalry  to  watch — this  fight  for  supremacy  and  the  commerce  of 
Prince  William  Sound.  It  may  be  Guggenheim's  Copper  River  and  North- 
western terminating  at  Cordova;  it  may  be  the  Alaska  Central  at  Seward;  the 
Alaska  Home  at  Valdez,  or  some  other  yet  unknown  railroad  and  port  that 
will  be  the  metropolis  of  Alaska. 

The  government  tests  prove  the  petroleum  and  hard  coal  of  Comptroller 
Bay  and  hard  coal  ol  Matenuska  to  be  equal  to  the  best  grades  of  Pennsylvania. 
The  Bonanza,  Nicola,  Jumbo  and  other  copper  mines  near  X'aldez  Creek  pur- 
chased by  the  Guggenheims  are  but  mountains  of  copper,  worth  untold  millions. 
and  yet  but  a  drop  in  the  bucket  compared  with  the  richness  of  the  country 
drained  by  the  Chittistone,  Nizina.  Chitina.  Kuskulana,  Kotsina  and  other 
streams  flowing  into  Copper  River,  including  seventy-five  miles  square  copper 
stained  throughout.      The  year    1908  was  a  prosperous  one  on  these  rivers  for 


gold  hunters,  among  the  most  successful  are  the  well-known  Dan  Kane,  for  whom 
Dan  Creek  is  named,  and  Pete  Monohan,  the  discoverer  of  gold  on  Valdez 
Creek,  now  working  rich  placers  near  the  Bonanza  Mines.  The  only  free  silver 
nuggets  that  I  have  seen  from  Alaska  came  from  this  country.  Copper  boulders 
weighing  a  hundred  pounds  roll  down  the  creeks  or  are  washed  out  of  the  gold 
placers,  some  of  which  have  been  piled  up,  awaiting  the  approaching  railroad. 
No  description  of  mine  can  overstate  the  value  of  the  mineral  of  this  country. 


A  little  to  the  northward  are  the  Susitna  and  Kuskoquim  basins,  also  richly 
mineralized,  and  destined  to  be  a  farming  country  equal  to  or  better  than  the 
Dakotas.  In  the  great  bend  of  the  Yukon,  traversed  by  the  basins  of  the 
Xanana,  Kuskoquim,  Susitna  and  Copper  Rivers,  is  a  country  somewhat  like  the 
plains  of  the  Middle  West,  and  in  which  a  couple  states  like  Iowa  could  and 
will  be  carved.  More  wheat  can  now  be  grown  there  per  acre  of  the  hard 
variety  than  can  be  produced  per  acre  in  Minnesota;  likewise  more  bushels  of 
potatoes  or  tons  of  hay.  When  the  railroads  reach  the  Tanana  and  ^  ukon 
valleys  this  agricultural  district,  the  coal  and  oil  of  Comptroller  Bay,  and  the 
anthracite  beds  of  Matenuska,  one  of  the  busiest  ports  in  the  United  States  will 
be  somewhere  near  Valdez.  Valdez  is  not  an  antiquated  Russian  relic  or  rotting 
native  village.  It  is  one  of  the  towns  born  in  the  gold  excitement  of  1 898. 
Judge  Reed  ordered  a  census  a  year  ago  because  of  an  issue  between  the  wets 
and  drys,  which  showed  a  population  of  I  1  64.  The  Valdez-Fairbanks  trail, 
early  opened  by  Abercombie,  who  did  more  than  any  one  man  to  discover  the 
wilds  of  this  country  since  the  days  of  Vancouver  and  Malaspina,  keeps  business 
alive  every  day  in  winter  as  well  as  summer.  Good  schools,  cable,  wire,  wireless, 
stages,  newspapers,  canneries,  mills,  copper  mines,  coal  mines,  gold  mines,  oil 
wells,  railroads,  cross-country  trails  and  frequent  boats,  winter  and  summer, 
make  Valdez  a  modern,  busy  little  town. 


All  I  have  said  applies  to  Seward,  as  well  as  to  V^aldez;  and  in  ad- 
dition it  may  be  said  that  few  harbors  in  the  world  are  better  than  that 
of  Seward,  and  that  the  Alaska  Central  is  more  favored  by  nature  than 
any  of  the  other  roads  headed  for  the  Yukon.  It  would  be  most  fitting 
if  Seward,  named  in  honor  of  the  purchaser  of  Alaska,  should  become 
the  largest  city  in  Alaska,  and  its  prospects  are  as  good  as  the  best  now.  The 
Alaska  Central  will  tap  one  of  the  largest  beds  of  anthracite  coal,  for  which 
it  will  have  a  down  haul  and  perfect  harbor.  At  the  same  lime  it  is  in  easy  reach 
of  the  Kenai  Peninsula,  laden  with  minerals  awaiting  development,  and  the 
upper  Cook's  Inlet  country,  as  well  as  the  Copper  River  country  now  being  staked 
by  other  railroads. 


The  litigation  of  the  Alaska  Central  was  finished  two  months  ago.  and 
peace  reigns  once  more  among  the  stockholders,  and  the  road  will  proceed  rapidly, 
as  about  twenty-five  miles  of  grade  is  already  complete  and  timbers  on  hand. 
Both  the  Alaska  Central  and  the  Copper  River  and  Northwoslern  have  pro- 
gressed beyond  the  fifty-mile  post  w  ith  rails,  and  this  year  will  add  much.  T  he 
Guggenheims  have  terminal  station,  shops,  etc..  erected;  the  road  from  Cordova 
to  Abercombie  Rapids,  fifty-four  miles,  is  complete  and  known  as  the  Copper 
River  Railroad  as  far  as  the  Tusnuna  River,  above  which  it  is  known  as  the 
Copper  River  and  Northwestern.  Only  a  few  miles  of  the  latter  has  been  built, 
but  it  will  this  year  be  completed  to  Bremner  Flats,  and  such  boat  and  train 
service  connected  as  will  enable  not  only  the  company  but  the  country  to  develop 


rapidly.  I  liey  will  have  five  Rood  boats  on  the  Copper  River  and  a  small  l)oat 
will  operate  as  far  up  as  Gulkina.  I  liis  service  will  enable  the  miners  to  get 
into  Copper  Center.  Gulkina.  or  even  Valdez  Creek  without  much  hardship — 
advantage  of  which  I  expect  to  take  for  myself.  From  these  points  and  others 
trails  lead  across  the  country  and  along  every  river  and  creek  in  every  direction. 
The  road  work  of  the  government  is  commendable,  but  madccjuate  for  the  busi- 
ness IrafTic,  which  is  no  fault  of   Major  F^ichardson  in  charge  of   it. 

I  he  population  of  Prince  William  Sound  and  (  ook's  Inlet  includes  some 
•nl  all  the  native  races — hunter  trapper,  trader,  canneryman.  prospector,  promoter 
and  miner.  I  he  Indian  villages  are  numerous  but  small.  I  he  Greek  Church 
of  Russia  and  Russian  Creoles  may  be  found  in  almost  every  village. 

There  are  numerous  islands  of  importance  in  the  Sound.  Hinchingbroke. 
on  which  Baranoff  located  Port  Etches,  where  he  built  his  ships  for  the  Sitka 
Expedition  (the  native  name  for  the  island  and  village  is  Nutchek).  was  a  Rus- 
sian trading  post  for  many  years,  and  is  a  fishing  station  now.  Later  Orca 
became  the  most  important  village  and  largest  fishery.  Now  the  Ellamar  mines 
and  village  by  the  same  name  is  a  busy  place  of  500.  and  the  mines  on  La  I  ouche 
and  Knight  Islands  are  almost  as  industriously  engaged  digging  out  blocks  of 
copper  for  the  smelter  at  Tacoma  or  elsewhere. 

The  Ellamar  miens  are  under  the  sea  at  high  tide  and  within  sixty  feet  of 
the  surface.  I  am  informed  that  they  will  place  a  coffer-dam  before  proceeding 
to  remove  more  metal.  This  will  enable  them  to  work  the  level  between  high 
and  low  tides,  at  that  point  about  twenty-five  feet.  The  tides  in  some  of  the 
arms  of  the  sea  in  this  vicinity  approach  thirty  feet  and  are  very  high  at  all 
points  for  several  hundred  miles  up  and  down  the  coast.  There  is  an  Indian 
village  at  Tatitlike.  but  like  elsewhere  it  is  in  the  same  state  of  decay  that  the 
race  is.  I  believe  there  are  five  thousand  residents  in  the  vicinity  of  Prince 
William  Sound,  a  thousand  in  the  valleys  of  the  Copper  River  and  tributaries, 
two  thousand  at  Seward  and  Susitna  River  and  tributaries,  a  thousand  on  Kanai 
Peninsula,  besides  another  thousand  on  the  shores  of  Cook's  Inlet.  This  estimate 
includes  a  mixture  of  natives  and  Russian  Creoles  not  exceeding  a  fourth  of 
the  whole  number.  1  he  development  of  the  coal  and  oil  at  Comptroller  Bay 
(or  Bering  River)  and  at  Matanuska  and  of  the  mineral  in  the  basins  of  the 
Copper  and  Susitna  Rivers  will  double  this  population  every  year  or  two. 

While  the  ports  of  Vladivostok,  St.  Petersburg,  those  in  Norway  and 
Eastern  Canada  in  the  same  latitude,  or  even  a  thousand  miles  farther  south  in 
places,  are  frozen,  these  ports  are  mild  and  open.  In  fact,  no  oter  ports  in  the 
world  so  far  north  are  open  and  free  of  ice  in  the  winter  season.  Neither  does 
any  other  country  in  the  world  in  the  same  latitude  (or  five  hundred  miles 
farther  south,  for  that  matter)  have  such  mild  climate.  The  influence  of  the 
Japanese  Current  are  wafted  inland  up  the  Susitna  and  Copper  and  over  the 
plains  of  the  Kuskoquim.  which  with  the  long  hours  of  daylight  and  warm  sum- 
mer sun  will  make  this  a  better  farming  country  than  other  lands  much  farther 


Hope.  Homer,  Sunrise,  Kenai.  Knik.  Tynook.  Seldovia.  Kusiloff  and  other 
villages,  canenry  stations,  trading  stores  and  mining  camps  on  Cook's  Inlet;  Coal 
Bay.  Turnagain  Arm.  Knik  Arm  and  othr  branches  ol  the  Inlet;  the  hanging 
glaciers  and  beautiful  glacial  streams;  the  gold  discoveries  of  Kenai  Peninsula; 
the  old  Russian  coal  mines  and  deserted  villages  of  a  hundred  years  ago;  the 
new  coal  mines  of  recent  years;  the  millions  of  birds  and  fish  that  come  to  these 
waters  in  season,  make  this  one  of  the  most  wonderful  spots  in  Alaska,  of  which 
so  much  can  be  written,  that  we  are  obliged  to  pass  it  by  in  this  short  work. 
In  a  few  years  it  will  be  as  well  known  as  some  of  the  western  states,  and  more 
resourceful  than  many  of  the  eastern. 


Here    came    nearly    all    the    early    navigators    searching    for    the    Northwest' 
Passage,  Sir  John  Franklin  or  fur;    their  successors  establishing  salmon  canneries, 
and  they,  in  turn,  followed  by  promoters  of  oil,  coal,  copper  and  gold  schemes. 

The  birch  and  poplar  of  the  East  meets  the  spruce  from  the  West.  The 
forest  of  the  South  gives  way  to  the  tundra  and  treeless  slopes  of  the  North. 
Siwash  to  the  southward,  Athabascan  eastward,  Esquimaux  northward,  and  to 
the  West  Aleut. 

This  is  the  limit  of  the  northerly  coasting.  From  here  we  produce  south 
of  westerly  toward  Japan  to  the  end  of  the  Aleutian  Islands,  which  almost 
reach  the  Asiatic  coast — it  is  another  kind  of  country. 

Here  come  the  Coast  mountains  and  the  Rockies.  At  the  head  waters  of 
the  Copper  and  Susitna,  and  Tanana,  and  Kuskoquim  they  unite  in  a  climax, 
the  apex  of  a  continent,  then  go  off  westward  together  until,  step  by  step,  they 
sink  deeper  and  deeper  into  the  sea.  disappearing  almost  within  sight  of  the 
shore  of  Japan. 

Here  the  boats  from  Seattle  turn  back.  And  as  we  trust  ourselves  to  the 
old  reliable  "Dora"  we  seem  like  saying  farewell  to  human  kind  and  plunging 
into  silence  and  the  unknowable.  But  before  we  enter  into  that  journey  we  must 
finish  a  few  subjects  belonging  to  the  first  division  of  this  book. 


While  we  are  inlhe  midsl  ol  the  coast,  or  Siwash,  Indians,  we  will  reler  to 
them  m  a  general  way,  to  which  we  are  limited  m  this  short  work. 

Very  little  that  is  reliable  can  be  learned  of  their  past  from  then  own  state- 
ments;  their  homes,  implements,  etc.,  are  not  enduring.  1  he  Russians  looked 
only  for  fur.  likewise  the  Hudson  Bay  Company.  The  white  man  left  them  to 
the  last  for  research.  The  exhaustive  research  commenced  a  few  years  ago 
by  the  Jessup  Expedition  among  the  Kwakiutis  should  be  extended  along  the 
entire  Pacific  and  Arctic  coasts. 

Evidences,  dimmed  by  the  erosion  of  years,  on  the  rock;  charred  and 
mummified  remains  in  antiquated  caves  and  vaults;  implements  of  ivory,  stone, 
copper,  iron,  bone,  resisting  decay  or  turned  up  by  tailing  trees  hundreds  of 
years  old,  and  shells,  bone  and  debris  from  the  camplire  many  feet  beneath  the 
mould,  abundantly  prove  the  habitation  of  a  primitive  race  here. 

Anthropologists  and  archaeologists  have  usually  said  that  prehistoric  man 
kept  away  from  the  coasts.  That  may  be  somewhat  true.  I  would  rather 
believe,  however,  that  the  present  coast  lines  were  many  fathoms  under  the  sea 
when  the  roofs  of  the  continents  were  first  inhabited  by  man.  Nevertheless  it  has 
been  unquestionably  proven  that  people  lived  here  during  an  extremely  early 

lo  use  the  comomn  terms,  the  natives  of  Alaska  have  been  usually  divided 
in  four  distinct  families,  the  Esquimaux,  Aleut,  Athabascan  and  Siwash;  but 
when  they  are  classed  accordin  to  their  blood  they  will  be  divided  in  two  classes: 

First — The  Athabascan  is  the  typical  native  red  man,  or  Indian,  of  America 
and  inhabits  the  interior  of  Alaska,  but  breaks  across  the  mountains,  coming  to 
the  coast  at  Cook's  Inlet  and  vicinity,  where  his  blood  and  language  shows  in 
the  Yakutats. 

Second — Ihe  Coast  Indian,  from  the  ColumlMa  Riser  northward,  is  one 
of  a  distinct  race.  His  flat  nose,  squinty,  oblique  eyes,  high  cheek  bones,  short 
bow^  legs  and  broad  chest  plainly  disclose  the  Mongolian  and  l.squimaux  blood 
(of  which  I  will  speak  later).  The  Coast  Indian,  with  his  soft,  yellow  com- 
plexion, is  not  a  red  man  or  North  American  Indian  at  all,  and  is  no  farther 
removed  from  the  Aleut  than  the  latter  is  from  the  Esquimaux.       I  he  Esquimaux. 


Aleut  and  Sivvash  should  be  classed  as  different  families  of  the  same  parent  stock, 
springing  up  originally  in  Asia,  or  mingling  with  people  of  Japanese  or  C  hinese 
ancestry  in  America. 

(  ourageous  chieftains   for  centuries   no   doubt    led   their   clans  or   "kvvans 
in  chase,  in  war  and  in  peace,  but  until  the  advent  ol   the  "paleface"  no  history 
recorded    their   deeds   of    valor   or   just    government,    except    as    were    carved    on 
totems  or  painted  on  rocks  or  handed  down  "by  word  of  mouth." 

I'  rom  the  days  of  Baranoff  and  Vancouver  many  daring  Siwash,  I  ecumseh- 
likf.  att.ukcd  the  explorers,  settlers,  forts,  traders  and  missionaries,  resisting  the 
encroachments  and  religion  single  handed  or  with  such  forces  as  he  could 
assemble.  These  have  become  well  known,  including  the  following  chiefs  in 
particular:  Seattle,  the  friend  of  the  whites  on  Puget  Sound;  Annahootz  and 
Katlean.  whose  tribes  burned  Sitka  and  murdered  the  Russians;  Legaic,  who 
resisted  the  efforts  of  Duncan  among  the  Indians  south  of  Dixon's  Entrance; 
Skowl.  on  Prince  of  Wales  Island,  whose  people  were  the  last  to  fight  Chris- 
tianity; Shaaks,  the  renowned  chief  of  Wrangell,  and  Kohkluk,  of  the  Chil- 

For  twenty-five  or  more  years  there  have  been  no  wars  to  fight.  1  he  old 
chiefs  have  died.  The  missionaries.  Bible  and  God  have  overcome  the  most 
barbaric  of  the  customs,  and  the  government  of  the  whites  has  taken  the  place 
of  the  chief,  so  that  the  occasion  for  a  great  man  has  not  arisen,  and  never  will 
in  the  old  way.  We  have  some  half-bloods  on  the  coast  abundantly  able  to 
practice  law  anywhere,  or  fill  the  executive  chair  of  a  state.  But  the  end  of  the 
race  is  inevitable. 

The  Indians  on  this  coast  are  included  in  the  general  term  "Siwash."  On 
Vancouver  Island  and  near  it  live  the  Kwakiutl  tribes.  In  passing  I  quote  from 
"Ethnology  of  the  Coast  Indian  Tribes  of  Alaska,"  by  Ensign  A.  P.  Niblack, 
U.  S.   N.: 

"The  strip  of  Coast  territory  extending  from  Puget  Sound  to  Cape  Saint 
Elias,  and  bordered  on  the  east  by  the  Cascade  range  of  mountains,  known  in 
general  as  the  Northwest  Coast,  is  a  continuous  archipelago  about  1 .000  miles 
long  and  1 50  miles  broad.  I  hrough  its  narrow  channels  winds  the  steamer 
route  to  Sitka,  and  dotted  along  its  shores  are  the  picturesque  winter  villages 
of  the  Coast  Indian  tribes,  an  ethnic  group,  corresponding  to  one  of  Bastian's 
geographical  areas,  materially  differing  not  only  from  the  hunting  Indians  of 
the  interior,  but  in  themselves  presenting  some  of  the  most  interesting  problems 
in  anthropology.  The  northern  Indians  of  this  region,  comprising  the  Tlingit. 
Haida  and  Tsimshian.  may  be  called  the  wood-carving  group;  and  the  southern 
Indians,  the  Kwakiutl.  Wakashan  and  Coast  Salish.  the  cedar-bark  group,  such 
designations  being  based  on  the  peculiarities  of  each  in  the  use  of  wood  and 
cedar  bark,    respectively,    for   industrial,   ceremonial   and   other   purposes. 

"There  have  been  three  semi-official  estimates  of  the  Tlingit  tribes  of 
Alaska.  The  earliest  is  that  in  the  archives  ol  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  under 
Sir  James  Douglas  (1839),  made  by  Mr.  John  Work,  a  factor  of  the  com- 
pany. The  total  as  given,  including  the  Kaigani  tribes  of  the  Haidan  stock,  and 
adding  on  the  Sitka  and  Hoonyah.  which  were  omitted,  is  8.973.  In  1861 
Lieutenant  Wehrman.  of  the  Russian  Navy,  in  the  emploj'  of  the  Russian-Ameri- 
can Company,  compiled  a  census  of  Tlingit  and  Kaigani,  giving  the  total  popu- 
lation ol  free  and  slaves  as  8,597.  The  third  estimate  appears  in  the  Census 
Report  of  1880.  and  places  the  Tlingit  and  Kaigani  population  at  7.223.  That 
the  enumeration  is  faulty  goes  without  saying,  when  no  real  attempt  was  made 
to  actually  count  them.  What  is  needed  is  a  census  taken  in  the  winter  when 
the  Indians  are  gathered  in  the  villages,  and  it  should  include  the  enumeration 
of  the  different  sub-totems  and  totems  composing  the  great  phratnes  of  these 
tribes.      This   should   be   supplemented   by   an   accurate   plotting   of   the    Indian 


hunting  and  fishing  grounds  which  have  been  held  in  the  different  famihes  and 
handed  down  for  generations.  A  collection  of  the  various  myths  and  traditions, 
with  ail  the  local  variations,  and  a  study  of  the  significance  of  the  carved  wooden 
columns  in  the  villages  is  also  needed  to  throw  light  upon  their  intricate  totemic 
system.  The  semi-religious  sects  and  the  elaborate  ceremonials  and  dances 
would  in  themselves  constitute  a  special  branch  of  study.  In  the  United  States 
National  Museum  is  a  magnificent  collection  of  ethnological  material  from  this 
region.  What  is  needed  is  a  systematic  governmental  supervision  of  the  collec- 
tion of  anthropological  data,  and  a  comparison  of  results  with  those  obtained 
in  the  southern  portion  of  this  region." 

Franz  Boas  has  written  about  400  pages  for  the  Smithsonian  Institute 
concerning  the  Indians  in  this  vicinity,  to  which  any  reader  may  refer  for  an 
exhaustive  account.  The  extensive  research  was  made  possible  by  the  liberal 
contribution  of  Morris  K.  Jessup,  the  philanthropist,  and  the  thorough  knowledge 
of  Mr.  George  Hunt,  of  Fort  Rupert. 

I  quote  the  following  from  Dr.  Boas,  which  will  apply  quite  well  to  the 
coast  as  far  as  Cooks  Inlet: 


"  I  he  Pacific  Coast  of  America  between  Juan  de  Fuca  Strait  and  ^  akutat 
Bay  is  inhabited  by  a  great  many  Indian  tribes  distinct  in  physical  characteristics 
and  distinct  in  languages,  but  one  in  culture.  Their  arts  and  industries,  their 
customs  and  beliefs,  differ  so  much  from  those  of  all  other  Indians  that  they 
form  one  of  the  best  defined  cultural  groups  of  our  continent. 

"Extending  our  view  a  little  beyond  the  territory  defined  above,  the  passes 
along  which  the  streams  of  culture  flowed  most  easily  were  the  Columbia  River 
in  the  south  and  the  pass  leading  along  Salmon  and  Bella  Coola  rivers  to  Dean 
Inlet  and  Bentinck  Arm.  Of  less  importance  are  Chilcat  Pass,  Stikine  River, 
Nass  and  Skeena  rivers  and  Fraser  River.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  there  are 
only  two  important  and  four  less  important  passes,  over  which  the  people  of 
the  coast  came  into  contact  with  those  of  the  interior.  1  hey  have  occupied 
a  rather  isolated  positon  and  have  been  able  to  develop  a  peculiar  culture  without 
suffering  important  invasions  from  other  parts  of  America. 

"As  the  precipitation  all  along  the  coast  is  very  great,  its  lower  parts  are 
covered  with  dense  forests  which  furnish  wood  for  building  houses,  canoes,  imple- 
ments and  utensils.  Among  them  the  red  cedar  {TIniVa  giganlea)  is  the  most 
prominent,  as  it  furnishes  the  natives  with  material  for  most  manufactures.  Its 
wood  serves  for  building  and  carving;  its  bark  is  used  for  making  clothing  and 
ropes.  The  yellow  cedar,  pine,  fir,  hemlock,  spruce,  yew  tree,  maple,  alder,  are 
also  of  importance  to  the  Indians.  T  he  woods  abound  with  numerous  kinds 
of  berries,  which  are  eagerly  sought  for.  The  kelp  and  seaweeds  which  grow 
abundantly  all  along  the  shore  are  also  utilized. 

"In  the  woods  the  deer,  the  elk,  the  black  and  grizzly  bear,  tiio  woll  and 
many  other  animals  are  found.  The  mountain  goat  lives  on  the  higher  ranges 
of  the  mainland.  The  beaver,  the  otter,  marten,  mink  and  fur  seal  furnish 
valuable  skins,  which  were  formerly  used  for  blankets.  I  he  Indians  keep  in  their 
villages  dogs  which  assist  the  hunters. 

"The  staple  fod  of  the  Indians  is,  however,  furnished  by  the  .sea.  Seals, 
lions  and  \vhales  are  found  in  considerable  numbers:  but  the  people  depend 
almost  entirely  upon  various  species  of  salmon,  the  halibut  and  the  oulai  lion  or 
candlefish  (7  haleichthys  pacificus,  Girard),  which  are  caught  in  enormous  quan- 
tities. Various  specimens  of  cod  and  other  .sea  fish  also  furnish  food.  Herrings 
visit  the  coast  early  in  the  spring.  In  short,  there  is  such  an  abundance  of  animal 
life  in  the  sea  that  the  Indians  live  almost  solely  uj')on  it.  Besides  lish,  they  gather 
various  kinds  oi  shellfish,  sea  urchins  and  cuttlefish. 


"  I  he  proi)l('  arc.  thorrforc,  essentially  fishermen,  all  other  pursuits  being 
of  secondary  imiwrlance.  Whales  arc  pursued  only  hy  the  tribes  of  the  west 
coast  of  Vancouver  Island.  Other  tribes  are  satisfied  with  the  dead  carcasses 
of  whales  which  drift  ashore.  Sea  lions  and  seals  are  harpooned,  the  barbed 
harpoon  point  being  either  attached  to  a  bladder  or  tied  to  the  stern  of  the  canoe. 
The  harpoon  lines  are  made  of  cedar  bark  and  sinews.  I  he  meat  of  these  sea 
animals  is  eaten,  while  their  intestines  are  used  for  the  manufacture  of  bow- 
strings and  bags.  Codfish  and  halibut  are  caught  by  means  of  hooks.  These 
are  attached  to  fish  lines  made  of  kelp.  I  he  hook  is  provided  with  a  sinker, 
while  the  upper  part  is  kept  afloat  by  a  bladder  or  a  wooden  buoy.  Cuttlefish 
are  used  for  bait.  The  fish  are  either  roasted  over  or  near  the  fire  or  boiled  in 
wooden  kettles  by  means  of  red-hot  stones.  Those  intended  for  use  in  winter 
are  split  in  strips  and  dried  in  the  sun  or  over  the  fire.  Salmon  are  caught  in 
weirs  and  fish  traps  when  ascending  the  rivers,  or  by  means  of  nets  dragged 
between  two  canoes.  Later  in  the  season  salmon  are  harpooned.  For  fishing 
m  deeper  water,  a  very  long  double-pointed  harpoon  is  used.  Herring  and 
oulachon  are  caught  by  means  of  a  long  rake.  I  he  oulachon  are  tried  in  canoes 
or  kettles  filled  with  water,  which  is  heated  by  means  of  red-hot  stones.  The 
oil  is  kept  in  bottles  made  of  dried  kelp.  In  winter,  dried  halibut  and  salmon 
dipped  in  oil  is  one  of  the  principal  dishes  of  the  tribes  living  on  the  outer  coast. 
Clams  and  mussels  are  collected  by  the  women ;  they  are  eaten  fresh,  or  strung 
on  sticks  or  strips  of  cedar  bark  and  dried  for  winter  use.  Cuttlefish  are  caught 
by  means  of  long  sticks;  sea  eggs  are  obtained  by  means  of  round  bag  nets. 
Fish  roe,  particularly  that  of  herring,  is  collected  in  great  quantities,  dried  and 
eaten  with  oil. 

"Sea  grass,  berries  and  roots  are  gathered  by  the  women.  The  sea  grass 
is  cut,  formed  into  square  cakes  and  dried  for  winter  use.  1  he  same  is  done 
with  several  kinds  of  berries,  which  when  used  are  dissolved  in  water  and  eaten 
mixed  with  fish  oil.  Crabapples  are  boiled  and  kept  in  their  juice  until  late  in  the 
winter.  They  are  also  eaten  with  fish  oil.  The  food  is  kept  in  large  boxes 
which  are  bent  of  cedar  wood,  the  bottom  being  sewed  to  the  sides. 

"In  winter  deer  are  hunted.  Formerly  bows  and  arrows  were  used  in  their 
pursuit,  but  these  have  now  been  replaced  by  guns.  The  bow  was  made  of  yew 
wood  or  of  maple.  The  arrows  had  stone,  bone  and  copper  points.  Bows  and 
arrows  were  carried  in  wooden  quivers.  Deer  are  also  captured  by  being  driven 
into  large  nets  made  of  cedar  bark,  deer  sinews  or  nettles.  Elks  are  hunted  in 
the  same  way.  For  smaller  animals  traps  are  used.  Deer  and  bears  are  also 
caught  in  large  traps.  Birds  were  shot  with  arrows  provided  with  a  thick,  blunt 
point.  Deer  skins  are  worked  into  leather  and  used  for  various  purposes,  prin- 
cipally for  ropes  and  formerly  for  clothing. 

"  I  he  natives  of  this  region  go  barelegged.  The  principal  part  of  their 
clothing  IS  the  blanket,  and  this  was  made  of  tanned  skins  or  woven  of  mountain 
goat  wool,  dog's  hair,  feathers  or  a  mixture  of  both.  The  thread  is  spun  on  the 
bare  leg  and  by  means  of  a  spindle.  Another  kind  of  blanket  is  made  of  soft 
cedar  bark,  the  warp  being  tied  across  the  weft.  These  blankets  are  trimmed  with 
fur.  At  the  present  lime  woolen  blankets  are  most  extensively  used.  At  festive 
occasions  "button  blankets"  are  worn.  Most  of  these  are  light  blue  blankets 
with  a  red  border  set  with  mother-of-pearl  buttons.  Many  are  also  adorned 
with  the  crest  of  the  owner,  which  is  cut  out  in  red  cloth  and  sewed  on  to  the 
blanket.  Men  wear  a  shirt  under  the  blanket,  while  women  wear  a  petticoat 
in  addition.  Before  the  introduction  of  woolen  blankets,  women  used  to  wear 
an  apron  made  of  cedar  bark  and  a  belt  made  of  the  same  material.  When 
canoein  or  working  on  the  beach,  the  women  wear  large  water-tight  hats  made 
of  basketry.  In  rainy  weather  a  water-tight  cape  or  poncho  made  of  cedar  bark 
IS  used. 


"  The  women  dress  their  hair  in  two  plaits,  while  the  men  wear  it  compara- 
tively short.  The  latter  keep  it  back  from  the  face  by  means  of  a  strap  of  fur 
or  cloth  tied  around  the  head.  Ear  and  nose  ornaments  are  used  extensively, 
rhey  are  made  of  bone  and  abalone  shell.  The  women  of  the  most  northern 
tribes   (from  about  Skeena  River  northward)    wear  labrets. 

"A  great  variety  of  baskets  are  used — large  wicker  baskets  for  carrying 
fish  and  clams,  cedar-bark  baskets  for  purposes  of  storage.  Mats  made  of  cedar 
bark,  and  in  the  south  such  made  of  rushes,  are  used  for  bedding,  packing,  seats, 
dishes,  covers  of  boxes  and  similar  purposes. 

"In  olden  times  work  in  wood  was  done  by  means  of  stone  and  bone  imple- 
ments. Trees  were  felled  with  stone  axes  and  split  by  means  of  wooden  or  bone 
wedges.  Boards  were  split  out  of  cedar  trees  by  means  of  these  wedges.  After 
the  rough  cutting  was  finished,  the  surface  of  the  wood  was  planed  with  adzes, 
a  considerable  number  of  which  were  made  of  jade  and  serpentine  boulders, 
which  materials  are  found  in  several  rivers.  Carvings  were  executed  with  stone 
and  shell  knives.  Stone  mortars  and  pestles  were  used  for  mashing  berries. 
Paint  pots  of  stone,  brushes  and  stencils  made  of  cedar  bark,  formed  the  outfit 
of  the  Indian  painter.     Pipes  were  made  of  slate,  of  bone  or  of  wood. 

"Canoes  are  made  of  cedar  wood.  The  types  of  canoes  vary  somewhat 
among  the  different  tribes  of  the  coast,  depending  also  largely  upon  whether  the 
canoe  is  to  be  used  for  hunting,  traveling  or  fishing.  The  canoe  is  propelled 
and  steered  by  means  of  paddles. 

"The  houses  are  made  of  wood  and  attain  considerable  dimensions.  1  he 
details  of  construction  vary  considerably  among  the  various  tribes,  but  the  gen- 
eral appearance  is  much  alike  from  Comox  to  Alaska,  while  farther  south  the 
square  northern  house  gives  way  to  the  long  house  of  the  Coast  Salish." 

The  native  population  is  not  now.  nor  never  was,  reliably  counted  on  the 
coast   or   in   Alaska. 

The  Indian  with  his  family  migrates  from  herring  to  salmon,  salmon  to  seal, 
seal  to  deer,  deer  to  berries,  etc.  His  life  is  one  of  existence  only.  The  simplest 
foods,  raw  at  that,  and  a  blanket  are  enough  to  make  him  perfectly  content. 
The  spreading  branches  of  a  tree,  the  canopy  of  heaven,  a  spruce  bough  or  bark 
hut,  a  shack,  a  skin  teepee  or  most  any  convenient  pretense  for  shelter  is  his  home 
as  he  roams  in  search  of  food.  If  his  stomach  is  full,  the  house,  whatever  it 
may  be,  is  a  mansion  and  the  country  a  most  desirable  one.  1  hese  habitations 
are  everywhere,  but  not  one  in  ten  are  occupied,  which  fact  should  be  taken  into 
consideration  when  estimating  the  people.  The  statistics  should  be  taken  at  a 
time  when  the  Indians  are  all  in  the  villages,  and  they  should  be  numbered  and 
scheduled  in  the  family  or  tribe  to  which  they  belong.  I  o  use  their  tribe  totem, 
or  badge,  would  be  very  pleasing  to  them  and  more  readily  understood. 

1  he  Indians  are  changing  their  manner  of  living.  Many  of  them  go  with 
the  whaling  or  cod  boats  to  the  Arctic  waters,  others  to  the  canneries  along  the 
coast,  others  to  the  interior,  some  to  the  mills,  some  to  the  garbage  dumps  of  the 
towns  and  cities  and  some  to  the  hop  fields.  One  year  one  place,  the  next 
another;  sometimes  alone,  at  others  with  a  large  family  or  many  families.  I  heir 
old  customs  have  little  or  no  binding  force  now.  1  hey  marry  on  short  acquaint- 
ance into  any  tribe,  and  separate  at  pleasure. 

All  but  the  oldest  can  speak  English,  and  they  speak  their  own  dialect,  or 
"Chinook."  Chinook  is  a  trade  jargon.  Mr.  Hale  early  prepared  a  list  of 
Chinook  words.  It  was  found  to  consist  of  the  following:  f- rom  Nootka.  18; 
English.  41  ;  French.  34;  Chinook  Indian.  111.  I  find  no  trouble  :n  under- 
standing them  or  in  making  them  understand  me  (when  ihey  wish  to  do  so)  any- 
where on  the  coast. 


General    Hallc.k    in    his    offn  lal    report    t^avc    tin-    follownit/    population    of 
vSiwasli  on  the  Alaskan  C  oasl : 

Hydas,    Prince  of   Wales   Island     600 

Hennagas.  Cape  r-*olc                        300 

Chatsinas.  Northern  Islands  of  Alexander  Arrhi|)clav;  >  300 

Tongas,  Tonga  Island,  etc  500 

Slikeens,  on  Stikeen  River  and  coast  1,000 

kakes.  on  Kupreanoff  Island  1 .200 

kuins,    Frederick    Sound  800 

koot/-noo.-,    Arimirally    island  800 

Awks,   Tahkoo   River  800 

I  ahkoos  and  Sundowns,  on  coast  near    I  ahkoo  River  500 

Chilkahts,    Linn    Canal .     2,000 

Hood-su-noo-hoos,   Chatham   Straits 1,000 

Hunnahs  (Hoo-noos),  Linn  Canal  and  Cape  Spencer                 1,000 

Sitkas,   Baranoff   Island 1,200 

Copper    River                      150 

kenai,  north  of  Copper  River                   2,500 

Total    Sivvash    (1869).  14.650 

Elliott,  Dall,  Jackson  and  others  in  those  days  more  qualified  to  numerate 
the  natives  than  persons  unfamiliar  with  them,  usually  reported  the  natives  to  be 
fewer  in  number  than  above  given. 

At  the  present  time  no  tribe  or  "kwan"  is  larger  than  it  was  then.  Some 
have  entirely  disappeared,  and  others  nearly  so.  My  own  opinion  is  that  the 
whole  Indian  population  on  the  Pacific  Coast,  from  Dixon  Entrance  to  Cooks 
Inlet  (excepting  the  ^  akutats)  will  not  exceed  10,000  population.  The  Rus- 
sian estimate  for  1838  in  whole  of  Alaska  was  40,000;  south  of  "^I'akutat, 


It  can  hardly  be  said  that  the  native  Siwash  had  a  religion,  but  such  as  it 
was  It  consisted  of  witchcraft,  traditions,  legends,  superstitions,  shamanism  and 
frenzied  fear  of  evil  spirits. 

The  Siwash  does  not  fear  or  worship  God.  He  fears  the  Devil ;  and  his 
religious  efforts  are  put  forth  to  appease,  deceive,  frighten,  cajole,  or  in  some 
manner  outwit,  outrun  or  outdo  him. 

He  does  not  call  upon  God  to  assist  him  in  this,  but  uses  all  his  craft  and 
cunning,  all  his  knowledge  of  escape  learned  from  the  wild  animals,  all  his  fanati- 
cism, all  the  baths,  herbs,  fires,  etc.,  believed  to  be  injurious  to  devils,  all  his 
hideous  paints,  masks,  dances  and  incantations  or  songs,  and  in  the  end.  if  the 
sick  do  not  recover,  if  the  hunt  is  no  more  successful,  if  famine,  pestilence  or 
other  trouble  grows  worse,  he  calls  in  the  whole  family,  or  the  witch  doctor  or 
the  Shaman.  And  if  still  unfortunate  in  obtaining  relief  from  the  devil  a  witch 
may  be  pointed  out  among  his  people  and  tortured  or  killed,  or  the  village  may  be 
deserted  forever. 

No  good  fortune  is  attributed  to  God,  but  to  the  licking  of  the  devil  or 
prowess  of  the  Indian.  All  misfortune,  however,  is  charged  to  the  Devil.  It  may 
be  the  earthquake,  smoking  volcano,  elements  of  the  weather,  unfavorable  season, 
smallpox,  chasing  of  the  fish  or  game,  loss  in  war,  in  any  event,  it  is  always  the 
Devil.  No  wonder  he  wears  rabbit  feet,  asafetida,  teeth,  claws,  beaks,  stones 
and  the  like,  when  he  considers  many  of  them  as  charms  against  the  evil  one. 
No  wonder  he  adorns  himsell  so  badly  with  masques,  paints,  etc.  They  give 
him  success,  health  and  life,  whatever  and  wherever  his  mission  may  be. 


He  did  not  hesitate  to  take  the  Hfe  of  his  parent  or  best  friend  if  con- 
victed of  witchcraft,  nor  to  pay  to  the  Shaman  or  witch  doctor  the  last  blanket 
or  chattel  he  possessed  for  relief  from  his  fancied  misfortune. 

Instead  of  lookm  to  God  for  protection,  he  looks  to  his  charms,  one  of 
the  best  being  the  totem  of  his  tribe. 

His  philosophical,  stoical,  ancestrial,  devil-fearing  theology  is  more  similar 
to  that  of  the  Chinese  than  of  any  other  people. 

The  same  may  be  said  with  regard  to  his  contented  theory  ol  life,  his  atti- 
tude toward  women  and  children,  the  fearless  manner  in  which  he  dies,  and  many 
other  phases  of  his  life. 

His  wrongs  magnify  before  us.  We  should  not  forget  that  in  ma.iy  locali- 
ties in  our  own  country  now  we  find  people  of  our  own  race  believing  in  witch- 
craft. And  while  he  was  burning  witches  on  the  Pacific  Coast  we  were  e.xecuting 
them  on  the  Atlantic. 

A  moment  ago  I  said  he  was  like  the  Chinese  in  his  attitude  toward  chil- 
dren (practicing  female  infanticide).  Perhaps  I  should  have  found  the  likeness 
more  nearly  at  home,  where  such  practices  are  ten  times  worse  than  they  ever 
were  with  the  Siwash.     His  creed  permitted  it;    we  are  traitors  to  ours. 

One  author  terms  the  religion  "Devil  worship."  It  is  generally  known  as 
"Shamanism,"  and  is  about  the  same  as  that  of  the  ancient  Tartars,  and  still 
practiced  in  Northeastern  Asia. 

The  first  white  man  to  penetrate  the  unknown  Alaska  found  that  the  interior 
Indians  had  a  tradition  of  a  flood,  or  glacial  period,  and  another  of  the  creation. 

When  a  research  was  made  on  the  caost,  it  was  found  that  the  Indians 
had  similar  traditions  long  prior  to  the  coming  of  the  first  white.  Traditions 
enough  can  yet  be  secured  from  them,  but  those  coming  from  such  reliable  men 
as  Elliott,  Dall  or  Jackson,  secured  while  the  Indian  was  still  living  in  his  own 
way,  are  most  desired. 

I  quote  the  folowin  from  Dall:  "Their  religion  is  a  feeble  Polytheism. 
Yell  is  the  maker  of  wood  and  water.  He  put  the  sun,  moon  and  stars  in  their 
places.  He  lives  in  the  east,  near  the  headwaters  of  the  Naas  River.  *  *  * 
There  was  a  time  when  man  groped  in  the  darkness  in  search  of  the  world.  At 
that  time  the  Thlinket  lived  who  had  a  wife  and  sister.  He  loved  the  former 
so  much  that  he  did  not  permit  her  to  work.  Eight  little  red  birds,  called  kun, 
were  always  around  her.  One  day  she  spoketo  a  stranger.  The  little  birds  flew 
and  told  the  jealous  husband,  who  prepared  to  make  a  box  to  shut  his  wile  up. 
He  killed  all  his  sister's  children  because  they  looked  at  his  wife.  Weeping,  the 
mother  went  to  the  seashore.  A  whale  saw  her  and  asked  her  the  cause  of  her 
grief,  and  when  informed,  told  her  to  swallow  a  small  stone  from  the  beach 
and  drink  some  sea  water.  In  eight  months  she  had  a  son  whom  she  hid  from 
her  brother.  I  his  son  was  Yehl  (God).  At  that  time  the  sun,  moon  and  stars 
were  kept  by  a  rich  chief  in  separate  boxes,  which  he  allowed  no  one  to  touch. 
Yehl,  by  strategy,  secured  and  opened  these  boxes  so  that  the  moon  and  stars 
shone  in  the  sky.  When  the  sun  box  was  opened,  the  people,  astonished  at  the 
unwonted  glare,  ran  ofl  into  the  woods,  mountains  and  even  into  the  water, 
becoming  animals  and  fish.  He  also  provided  fire  and  water.  I  laving  arranged 
everything  for  the  I  hlinkets  (Siwash)  he  disappeared  where  neither  man  nor 
spirit  can  penetrate." 

There  are  similar  traditions  and  legends  for  everything  and  of  every  place 
of  sufficient  interest  to  a  Siwash  for  a  subject  of  meditation.  I  he  stories  of  the 
Creation,  of  the  worm,,  mountain,  sea.  etc..  are  numerous  and  as  weird  and 
tanciful  as  those  of  the  earth  or  themselves. 

1  he  brilliant  aurora,  smoking  mountain,  important  s.ilmon  and  the  like  are 
big  subjects  for  bigger  stories  full  of  phantoms,  ghosts,  goblins  and  bugaboos  too 


iiunuTous  lo  mention  ni  a  puMu  ution  as  brief  as  ihis.  I  lie  above  story  of  the 
Creation  is  a  fair  sample  of  millions,  at  leastan  inexhaustible  supply.  The  most 
interesting  feature  of  that  story  is:    Where  did  they  get  the  material  for  making 

it  so  murh  Iikr  our  own  story  of  the  (  reafion  ;ind  fatherless  Savior? 


If  you  lived  m  a  country  where  ghoulish  animals  and  birds,  gormand-Iike, 
wer  always  and  everywhere  ready  lo  devour  the  dead,  and  you  had  no  tools 
or  lumber  or  even  a  spade  with  which  lo  make  a  coffin  or  dig  a  grave,  what  would 
you  do  with  your  dead? 

Circumstances,  little  by  little,  would  make  a  custom,  and  custom  makes 
law.      Which  IS  exactly  what  happened  to  the  Siwash. 

I  ie  mummified  and  inclosed  them  in  caves,  as  near  Sitka  (where  a  perfectly 
preserved  mummy  was  found  two  years  ago)  ;  rolled  them  in  blankets  or  incased 
them  in  a  bundle  of  sticks  or  split  slabs  and  hung  them  in  a  tree  or  on  a  pole 
scaffolding,  as  at  Fort  Rupert;  cremated  them  and  incased  the  ashes  in  the 
hollow  of  the  family  totem  pole  with  those  other  members  of  the  family  cremated 
before;  or  inclosed  them  in  a  small  cache  or  gravehouse,  erected  from  the  ground 
or  from  a  pole  scaffolding  six  or  more  feet  above  the  ground,  as  at  Wrangell  and 
elsewhere.  The  modes  of  burial  prove  nothing  as  to  their  religion  or  ancestry. 
It  simply  shows  that  they  honored  their  dead  by  placing  them  where  they  would 
be  least  disturbed  and  best  preserved.  I  notice  that  several  methods  were  used 
by  the  same  tribes  originally.  Then  came  the  whites  with  spade  and  Bible  and 
persuaded  them  that  it  would  be  better  to  bury  in  the  ground,  which  they  prac- 
tically all  do  now.  Within  another  century  we  will  be  back  to  their  method — 


At  the  present  time  marriages  among  the  Siwash  Indians  are  of  the  "com- 
mon-law" kind  usually,  and  divorces  are  as  frequent  and  easily  obtained  as 
among  the  whites  at  Seattle. 

In  fact,  neither  the  old  customs  of  the  Indians  or  new  of  the  missionary  are 

In  general  it  may  be  said  that  few  laws  of  the  whites  are  observed,  and 
fewer  customs  of  the  natives  followed  now,  excepting  such  Christianized  com- 
munities as  Sitka  and  Metlakahtla. 

The  officers  of  our  government  and  courts  give  little  attention  to  the  con- 
duct of  the  native,  so  long  as  he  does  not  involve  our  race  or  property.  One 
of  the  missionaries  tells  of  open  murder  of  a  wife,  unpunished.  The  Indian 
even  braged  that  he  purchased  his  wife  and  had  a  right  to  kill  her  if  he  chose. 

Where  tribal  government  existed,  no  doubt  our  officers  had  little  authority, 
as  was  decided  in  our  Supreme  Court  December  14,  1883 — holding  that  our 
Federal  Courts  could  not  convict  a  tribe  Indian  of  murder. 

The  forms  of  marriage  years  ago  were  as  varied  among  the  tribes  as  those 
of  burial,  and  the  bride  had  little  or  nothing  to  say  in  the  matter.  She  might 
be  purchased  or  stolen  by  the  groom,  or  exchanged  by  her  parents  for  a  trinket. 
She  is  considered  a  chattel  by  the  husband,  treated  as  a  slave  by  him,  and  is  a 
subject  of  ridicule  and  abuse  by  the  children.  All  the  work  is  hers  to  do,  except 
the  lordly  occupation  of  hunting.  At  one  time  many  of  the  tribes  imprisoned 
the  girl  for  several  months  as  she  arrived  at  womanhood,  and  then  pierced  her 
lip  near  the  corner  of  the  mouth  and  inserted  a  stick,  piece  of  ivory,  silver  pin 
or  the  like,  which  was  enlarged  as  she  grew  older,  or  became  a  wife,  a  mother, 
etc.  Some  of  the  old  squaws  had  large  round-ended  pieces  of  stone  inserted,  .so 
heavy  and  big  as  to  draw  the  features  of  the  face  all  out  of  shape.      Perhaps  for 


the  same  barbaric  reasons  that  the  Chinese  have  when  they  black  the  teeth  or 
bind  the  feet  of  their  women  and  girls,  or  other  natives  of  Alaska  have  when  they 
tattoo  theirs. 

I  attempted  to  get  a  list  of  the  numerous  grounds  oi  divorce,  and  was  told 
that  a  squaw  had  no  grounds  for  divorce,  but  that  her  husband  might  divorce 
her  for  laziness,  drunkenness,  and  for  anything  he  chose,  except  I  did  not  find 
the  ground  or  reason  of  the  white  man — "incompatibility  of  temperaments." 

Prostitution,  bigamy,  polygamy  and  even  incest  have  been  common,  and 
even  now  occur  not  infrequently. 

A  man's  wealth  is  often  measured  by  the  number  of  squaws  that  he  pos- 
sesses for  wives.  They  are  the  most  faithful  slaves.  By  their  industry  he  ac- 
quires numerous  blankets  and  chattels.  These  he  can  give  to  his  friends  at  the 
Potlatch,  and  they  in  time  will  at  their  Potlatches  give  him  as  much  or  more. 
Numerous  kinships  are  added  to  his  iamily  and  tribe,  so  that  it  is  only  a  ques- 
tion of  time  when  a  man  with  many  wives  becomes  a  powerful  chieftain. 


The  "Siwash"  had  their  slaves,  mostly  women,  taken  from  the  weak  Stick 
Indians  on  the  ^  ukon,  or  some  other  weak  tribe  of  the  interior  or  Puget  Sound 

1  he  treatment  of  these  slaves  was  more  cruel  than  ol  the  wives,  not  much 
better  than  of  the  dogs,  and  ofttimes  as  atrocious  and  bloody  as  that  of  the 

The  owner  of  a  slave  had  full  authority  to  inflict  any  injury  upon  or  kill 
his  servant.  Although  slavery  is  practically  discontinued,  we  here  and  there 
find  a  slave  in  servitude  or  at  liberty  choosing  voluntarily  to  remain  in  the  land 
of  his  master,  but  the  social  rating  of  a  liberated  slave  continues  to  be  that  of  a 


On  this  timber-covered  shore,  where  the  larger  part  of  the  food  comes  from 
the  sea;  where  the  forest  is  so  dense  that  migration  is  obstructed;  the  mountains 
too  high  to  climb  and  the  wind  and  tides  so  useful  for  motor  power,  the  canoe 
becomes  the  most  useful  of  the   Indian's  possessions. 

I  ales  and  traditions  of  these  Indians  associate  the  canoe  from  the  begin- 
ning. At  first  they  must  have  been  made  with  the  stone  ax  or  chisel,  then  hard- 
ened copper,  ivory  and  bits  of  iron. 

It  vvasnecessary  to  fell  the  tree  and  convey  it  to  the  shore,  then  to  dig  out 
the  interior  and  nicely  round  the  sides,  until  it  became  a  thin  shell,  when  it  was 
filled  with  water  and  hot  stones  placed  into  the  water  until  it  was  boiling,  and 
when  well  steamed  and  softened  it  was  warped  and  braced  in  graceful  lines  to 
glide  over  the  water  with  the  least  resistance. 

I  hese  canoes  are  in  all  sizes  from  baby  dimensions  for  children  or  one 
person  up  to  war  canoes  large  enough  for  1  00  men.  We  used  one  large  enough 
for  50  men  last  year  for  cruising  along  the  shores  of  Alaska,  propelled  by  a 
gasoline  engine.  I  believe  there  are  almost  as  many  of  these  canoes  on  this  coast 
as  there   are   Indians. 

A  squaw  in  one  of  them  could  make  a  Cornell  oarsman  in  a  Peterborough 
"go  some."  Man,  woman  and  child  fit  to  them  as  though  they  were  a  part  of 
the  craft. 

Everywhere  they  look  the  same,  everywhere  the  same  neat,  ad/-like  prints 
in  straight  rows  show  how  carefully  and  same-like  they  are  made.  Old  canoes, 
made  generations  ago  before  while  man's  tools  were  obtained,  appear  the  same 
as   now. 

Some  of  the  potlatch  bowls  and  totem  poles  show  similar  construction  and 
marks  of  that  universally  used  hand-adz. 



A  Padcrcwski  musical,  symphony  ordiaslra,  colonial  hall.  jig.  huck  and 
win^  dance,  (luadiillc,  o|)cra  or  some  other  classical  or  otherwise  of  ours,  would 
to  an  untutored,  unsaved  savage  seem  as  strange,  vulgar,  inharmonious  as  his 
potlatch.  funeral,  marriage,  war  or  other  dance,  his  battle-chants,  death-wails 
or  other  songs  and  his  rude  skin  drum  or  other  music  would  the  first  time  lo  one 
of  our  race.  Our  civilized,  calcimined  maidens  at  a  formal  evening  or  colonial 
ball  can  oulslrip  in  more  ways  than  one  the  most  comely  Siwash  belle  at  a  chief's 
potlatch  dance. 

I  he  Indian  has  his  songs  of  war  and  peace;  ol  death  and  birth;  of  this 
life  and  the  next.  The  following  is  a  portion  of  one  translated  by  Dall,  as 
sung  by  a  squaw  while  in  hunger  she  waited  for  the  return  of  her  husband 
singing  to  the  pappoose. 

"The  wind  blows  over  the  ^  ukon ; 

My  husband  hunts  the  deer  on  the   Koyukum   Mountains. 

Ahmi!   Ahmi!    Sleep  little  one. 

There  is  no  wood  for  the  fire. 

The  stone  ax  is  broken,  my  husband  carries  the  other. 

Where  is  the  sun-warmth?      Hid  in  the  dam  of  the  beaver,  waiting  spring 

Ahmi!  Ahmi!  Sleep  little  one,  wake  not." 

Numerous  songs  with  the  music  may  be  found  in  the  valuable  collection  by 
Fran/.  Boas. 

Medicine  dances,  except  those  given  for  entertainment,  arc  rarely  seen  now, 
but  I  quote  from  Karr  as  an  eye  witness  to  a  real  one: 

"Presently  he  stripped  himself  and  opened  his  box  of  charmes,  took  out 
a  wooden  figure  of  a  crane,  with  a  frog  clinging  to  its  back,  with  a  lot  of  sea- 
otter  teeth  and  carved  walrus  tusks.  The  latter  he  placed  on  the  stomach  of  the 
dieing  man.  Meantime  the  drums  and  sticks  kept  up  the  monotinous  noise,  and 
the  heat  and  stench  were  increased  by  the  fire.  He  grew  more  and  more  ex- 
cited, his  contortions  and  jerks  more  active,  crouching,  gesticulating.  -i^  ^  * 
At  a  sign  his  hair  was  uncoiled  by  an  assistant  magican.  its  length  was  at  least 
five  feet  *  *  every  minute  or  two  white  eagle  down  was  blown  over  and 
stuck  fast  to  his  head  and  bare  body,  giving  hair  and  skin  a  hoary  and  ancient 
look.  '  The  patient  soon  died.  1  he  hideous  masks,  rattles,  and  dress  of  the 
shaman,  his  wierd  songs  and  yells,  his  howls  and  groans,  his  writhing  aggonizing 
contortions,  and  his  exhaustion  and  collapse,  continues  until  the  pay  runs  out, 
the  patient  recovers  or  dies. 

The  shaman  is  more  feared  than  the  chief,  and  in  some  ways  has  more 
power,  at  least  over  the  devil.  He  is  too  sacred  and  lazy  to  work  or  risk  his 
life  in  grave  peril.  Ever  since  the  coast  Indians  have  been  known,  the  medicine 
man,  shaman,  or  witch  doctor,  has  been  losing  power  and  influence. 

At  the  present  time  the  Indian  (unlike  his  cousin  in  the  states)  has  no 
government  or  native  doctor. 

I  he  pulmonary  and  rheumatic  diseases  kill  or  maim  a  large  percent  of 
the  natives.  A  disease  known  among  them  as  "Hip  Joint  Disease"  is  very 
common  even  where  they  are  most  sanitary,  as  in  Sitka.  I  saw  young  and  old, 
men  and  women,  swinging  themselves  on  crutches  or  dragging  their  helpless 
lower  extremeties  as  a  result  of  this  disease.     Possibly  it  is  a  sort  of  rheumatism. 


The  potlach  may  be  given  by  and  Indian  because  he  thinks  he  will  not 
live  much  longer,  and  by  giving  away  his  blankets  and  other  gifts  and  a  feast 
to  his  friends  he  pays  his  debts  and  makes  an  honorable  name  for  himself.     Or  it 


may  be  given  as  an  announcing  event  of  the  retiring  of  an  old  or  beginning  of  a 
new  chief.  Or  it  may  be  given  for  the  purpose  of  outranking  a  rival,  or  many 
other  reasons.  But  some  of  the  underliemg  reasons  are,  that  the  giver  is  entitled 
to  and  will  get  in  return  any  where  from  25  to  200  percent  for  his  gifts  from  the 
recipient  or  his  friends,  and  a  great  name.  Therefore  it  has  a  three-fold  bene- 
ficial result — it  makes  his  rival  poor,  it  makes  him  rich,  and  gives  him  honor 
and  rank. 

Invitations  to  these  potlaches  are  often  sent  out  to  thousands,  covering  the 
whole  coast  from  Yakutat  to  Puget  Sound,  and  several  months  may  be  re- 
quired to  make  the  canoe  journey.  Eating,  drinking  and  gay  festivities,  georgeous 
dress  and  lavish  gifts  continue  until  the  givers  estate  is  exhausted  and  he  is  ap- 
parently as  poor  as  poverty.  But  that  is  the  richest  moment  of  his  life,  his 
honor  and  generosity  will  be  handed  down  from  generation  to  generation,  totems 
high  up  on  the  top  of  a  pole  will  announce  to  all  coming  near  for  years  the 
greatness  of  this  man,  and  the  gifts  from  time  to  time  will  be  repaid  with  usury. 

At  these  gatherings  the  history,  traditions,  legands,  customs  and  news  are 
related,  and  thus  disseminated  and  perpetuated ;  the  young  bucks  and  squaws 
form  new  acquaintances  and  often  marry;  matters  of  tribal  importance  are  dis- 
cussed and  decided;  in  brief  for  a  people  that  has  no  school,  church,  books,  news- 
papers, courts  or  law-making  assemblies,  it  serves  for  all  purposes.  At  different 
seasons  of  the  year  hundreds  of  natives  gather  at  Yakutat  Bay  to  take  seal  for 
the  year's  supply,  or  at  Dixon  Entrance  or  Nase  River  to  take  herring  for  the 
same  purpose,  or  at  other  places  for  salmon,  and  these  meetings  are  important 
as  the  potlach.      They  unify  the  tribes. 

Blankets  are  the  medium  of  exchange,  and  values  are  fixed  by  comparison, 
for  example  a  canoe  is  worth   10  blankets   (single). 

A  good  quality  of  government  blanket,  a  double  blanket  and  specially 
made  blankets  are  worth  more  than  the  single  blanket  used  as  the  base  of  value. 
There  are  engraved  copper  plates  in  use  on  the  coast  which,  according  to  their 
engraving,  are  worth  a  certain  number  of  blankets.  The  ordinary  cheap  white 
blanket  is  perhaps  the  correct  standard  now.  The  Chilkat  blanket,  so  much 
sought  by  tourists  and  playing  such  prominent  part  in  the  display  of  chiefs  and 
extravagant  dress  on  important  occasions,  is  worth  from  $50  to  $1  50. 


Totems  from  Seattle  to  Valdez,  Chief  Totems,  Potlatch  Totems.  Tribe 
Totems,  Grave  Totems,  Totems  for  sale,  of  slate,  of  bone  of  wood,  of  ivory 
woven  into  baskets,  and  blankets,  for  two  cents  up  to  two  hundred  dollars  each. 

Like  the  canoes  and  dogs,  they  are  almost  as  numerous  as  the  natives, 
and  as  illy  kept. 

Many  lie  on  the  earth,  rotting  records  are  they,  some  carved  two.  three 
hundred  years  ago.  Others,  yet  standing,  have  but  dim  traces  of  the  bright 
paints  which  once  made  them  look  like  the  wise,  silly,  courag'i'ous,  sacred,  ludic- 
rous, stern  or  frendly  faces  of  men,  or  of  birds,  animals,  fishes  and  devils. 

In  those  days  they  marked  lone  cabins,  deserted  graves,  also  thriving  villages 
and  homes  of  an  undisturbed  race.  Now  they  lie  rotting  and  hidden  as  they 
fall  like  forest  trees.  None  of  the  old  ones  are  preserved,  none  ever  repainted,  no 
new  ones  made,  except  for  commercial  purposes. 

Neither  is  a  "Siwash"  born  in  these  times  who  will  replace  the  ancestor 
of  totemic  days.  The  young  man  works  in  the  mill  and  cannery  or  is  devoted 
to  idleness,  hardly  able  to  speak  in  the  language  of  his  father  and  mother.  But 
few  native  dwellings  show  the  mythological  totem  faces  of  old.  fewer  are  oc- 
cupied at  all.  I  he  canoes,  blankets  mittens,  etc.,  are  more  often  of  the  com- 
merical  kind  from  the  store,  containing  no  badge  of  the  tribe  or  clan,  nor  fancy 
needlework  of  the  squaws,  as  of  old. 



■n  I'CKM 


C  on^ress  should  <  (jnic  Uj  tl)f  rescue  ol  lliese  jnoijle,  and  make  more  public 
parks  where  totems  could  he  shown  and  preserved  as  at  Indian  Kivcr  Park, 
Silka,  where  the  only  new  and  perfect  totems  can  now  he  seen.  If  Hassan,  now 
roltniK  in  the  hushes,  was  on  the  hanks  of  the  Hudson  all  the  senators  of  New 
Lngland  and  the  Atlantic  Coast  would  join  in  making  it  a  National  Park  the 
next  session,  and  save  every  shack  and  pole,  but  for  the  Pacific  not  "six  bits" 
could   be   obtamed. 

I  he  native  had  no  written  language,  and  no  hooks  of  record,  to  hand 
down  to  prosterity,  therefore,  Egyptian-like,  he  painted  and  carved  his  family 
tree,  great  events,  history,  etc.,  in  that  hieroglyphical  tolemic  sign  language 
nowhere  so  uniformally  used  and  clearly  understood  as  among  the  natives  be- 
tween Puget  Sound  and  Yakufat. 

But  few  Indians  could  tell  much  about  this  queer  race  custom  and  fewer 
would  if  they  could.  White  men  have  not  thoroughly  mastered  it.  1  he  sand- 
covered  ruins  of  the  deserts  of  Asia  and  Africa  hide  no  more  interesting 
mysteries  than  the  sills  of  the  Cascades  and  forest  debris  of  the  Alaska  Coast. 

While  a  remnant  of  ttottering  representatives  of  the  genuine  native,  his  resi- 
dence, totem,  basket  and  the  like  remain,  the  time  and  cause  would  be  most  op- 
portune  for  exhaustive    research. 

If  some  one  with  the  money  and  philanthrophy  of  a  Jessup  would  come 
forth,  I  am  sure  men  well  able  and  qualified  would  join  in  the  task  of  thoroughly 
exhuming  and  recording  the  past  and  present  of  these  people  and  their  ancestors 
from  Dixon  Entrance  to  Pt.  Barrow.  Certainly  one  or  two  of  the  twenty-five 
colleges  and  universities  now  digging  m  the  sands  of  the  Orient  might  profitably 
turn  their  spades  to  the  newest  shore  of  the  newest  continent,  deciper  the  to- 
temic  language  and  dig  up  the  numerous  evidences  of  a  strange  people  on  the  very 
limit  of  the  Occident. 

The  transportation  companies,  towns  and  people  of  Alaska  will  lose  a  very 
valuable  asset  if  they  allow  these  old  villages  and  totems  to  disappear.  Many 
tourists  come  across  the  continent  and  even  from  Europe  to  see  them,  and  in- 
cidentally become  interested  in  the  country.  Suppose  some  native  should  ask 
one  of  us,  why  we  erect  monuments  and  what  they  indicate,  and  to  explain 
the  W.  O.  W.,  the  Cross,  or  one  of  a  thousand  other  emblems?  Would  our 
answer  be  more  intelligent  to  the  Indian  than  his  to  us? 

I  believe  the  relation  of  the  ^'akutat  to  the  interim.,  natives  is  the  reason 
why  he  is  not  a  totem  Indian. 

Among  the  Esquimaux.  Aleuts,  Siberians,  Chinese  and  Japanese  may  be 
found  carvings  in  wood,  stone,  copper,  and  ivory  resembling  those  of  the  Si- 
wash  (or  Thlinkit).  These  similarities  will  assist  in  tracing  the  Mongolian 
from  Asia  to  South  America  or  the  reverse,  over  a  pathway  along  the  Pacific 
Coast.  To  the  writer  no  connecting  link  is  suggestive  between  the  Mongolian 
and  the  "Red  Man,  '  the  real  North  American  Indian  of  the  interior. 

The  people,  including  most  students,  have  always  "taken  it  for  granted" 
that  an  Indian  was  an  Indian,  and  all  of  the  same  race.  This  year  thousands 
of  tourists  will  have  opportunity  to  observe  the  Thlinkit  or  Siwash  as  we  usually 
call  him,  and  to  even  a  casual  observer  the  marked  difference  between  him  and 
the  real    Indian  will  be  apparent. 

The  totem  and  tribal  badge  revealed  a  volume  of  information  to  those  fa- 
miliar with  them — the  tribe.  location,  marriage,  ancestor,  ownership,  social 
position,  etc. 

The  height  and  number  of  totems  could  fairly  be  attributed  to  the  wealth 
and  popularity  of  the  owner  of  the  pole. 

The  bird  or  animal  supposed  to  be  the  ancestor  of  the  tribe  usually  has  the 
place  of  honor  at  the  top,  and  other  animals,  sacred,  or  useful,  and  the  influential 


members  and  totems  of  both  the  husband  and  wife'e  lamihes,  make  up  the  other 
figures  of  the  family  totem  pole. 

Other  potlatch  poles,  grave  poles,  chief  poles  and  the  like  make  up  a 
hideous  wilderness  of  grotesque  face-trees  on  the  waterfront  of  every  old  Indian 
village  between  the  Straits  of  Fuca  and  Yakutat  Bay. 


A  thousand  miles  westward  of  the  mainland  of  America,  and  almost 
over  to  Japan,  is  Attu  the  first  island  of  the  Aleutian  chain,  and  the  home  of 
the  Attu  basket.  There  are  only  a  half  hundred  natives,  and  time  has  little 
value.  Tourists  rarely  ever  reach  the  place;  pride  rather  than  commercialism  is 
woven  into  the  work. 

H.\SKK'r.<   i"i;i>.M    rAcii'ic  coast  m"  .m.a.ska 

The  Aleut,  Yakutat,  and  Siwash,  Irom  Attu  to  Seattle,  now  and  for  time 
immemoral,  were  makers  of  baskets,  having  somewhat  of  a  general  resemblance, 
but  enough  individuality  to  readily  classify  them  in  the  eyes  of  a  well  informed 
dealer.      In  fact  the  work  of  a  single  weaver  may  be  distinguished. 

As  a  general  rule,  the  crude  root  basket  of  Seattle  make  grows  <»  little  botlei 
oil  Vancouver  Island,  and  cleaner  at  Mellakalhia,  and  very  much  improved, 
with  more  straw,  and  native  dyes,  at  Sitka,  and  still  more  improved,  with  finer 
work,  native  dyes  and  better  straw  at  Yakutat,  and  reaching  the  climax  ol 
b.isket-prefection  in  a  delicate  thing  of  skill   and  beauty  on  Attu   Island. 

It  is  said  that  only  one  woman  on  Attu  can  make  this  perfect  work,  and 
no  successor  has  learned  the  art.  The  good  baskets  are  made  by  the  surviving 
squaws  of  the  old  stock,  and  but  few  of  the  young  women  can  make  them.  They 
will  speedily  become  scarcer  and  cruder  as  the  present  weavers  die  ofl. 


I  lii-se  haskcts  vvrrc  ol  llir  most  usclul  implcriK-nls  before  the  toming  of  the 
uliilc  man.  I  hey  did  the  work  of  a  water  bucket.  fjoiMn^;  keltic,  fish  basket, 
baby  cab,   (ish  trap  and  burial  casket. 

Nearly  all  the  baskets  south  of  Wrangell  an-  made  from  spruce  or  other 
roots,  steamed,  healed  and  split,  and  usually  colored  with  Diamond  Dyes,  and 
of  little  value.  1  heir  genuineness  may  be  determined  by  the  "Siwash  odor," 
which  neither  age  nor  soap  will  remove,  and  which  can  not  be  f  ounterfitted,  nor 

In  this  basketry,  sea  weeds,  roots,  splits,  reeds  and  grasses,  yarns,  wild 
goat  hair  and  twigs  are  used.  The  gathering  of  these  materials  and  preparation 
thereof,  and  of  the  native  coloring  matters,  is  a  task  of  small  proportions. 

Coloring  matter  is  extracted  from  mosses,  in  fact  from  animal,  vegetable 
and  mineral  matter.  I  he  well  informed  buyer  will  not  purchase  a  Diamond  Dye 
colored  article. 

The  weavers  have  learned  from  the  tourists  or  are  instructed  by  the  mis- 
sionaries or  traders,  to  use  their  own  dyes  and  to  make  a  variety  of  styles,  in- 
cluding cuff  and  collar  boxes,  car  cases,  sewing  baskets,  etc. 

Some  of  the  material  used  is  so  delicate  that  it  must  be  kept  in  water  until 
woven  into  the  basket.  It  is  told  that  in  Attu  a  certain  kind  of  work  must  be 
made  under  water. 

Totem,  animal,  and  plant  designs  are  most  freguently  woven  into  the  basket. 
Great  war  hats  were  often  made  in  the  same  manner,  likewise  potlatch  uniforms. 

These  baskets  may  be  found  in  every  museum  of  importance  in  the  world, 
and  in  many  homes  in  Europe  and  America.  They  can  be  purchased  cheaper 
in  the  shops  of  Seattle  than  in  Alaska,  but  the  tourists  perfers  to  have  some 
native  or  local  story  with  his  souvnir,  and  therefore  purchases  of  the  Indian,  pre- 
fering  to  pay  for  it.  Many  curio  stores  await  the  traveler  on  the  Alaska  shore, 
and  hundreds  of  Indians  listen  for  the  boat  whistle,  and  meet  the  boat  with  their 
wares  of  every  kind  for  sale. 

Goat-horns  spoons.  Elk-horn  knife  handles.  Moose-horn  knapkin  rings;  or- 
naments of  ivory,  stone  and  bone;  jewelry  of  gold,  silver,  copper;  souvnirs  of 
tusks,  teeth,  claws,  hooves,  beaks,  tallons,  fish  and  shells  by  the  hundreds  of 
thousands  are  for  sale  by  the  natives  and  stores  everywhere  on  the  Coast. 

A  few  Chilkat  blankets  are  made  worth  from  $50  to  $150  each,  and  like 
the  best  baskets,  rank  at  the  top  of  woven  wares  made  by  unschooled  natives 
any  where  in  the  world. 


1    ' 

til  I  IK. \i'   i:i..\.\'Ki-:'r 



From  Sitka,  north  and  westward.  Russian  influences  have  not  died  out, 
the  Greek  cross  marks  the  school  or  mission  and  cemetery,  and  the  priest 
is  the  most  influential  factor  among  the  natives. 

While  the  results  of  Russia  missionary  work  are  good,  it  by  no  means 
is  equal  to  the  results  of  the  Protestant  churches  and  schools.  Particularly  is 
this  true  with  regard  to  the  cleanliness,  industry  and  moral  habits  of  the  convert 
or  student. 

All  up  and  down  the  coast  the  high  Indian  regard  lor  the  Presbyterian 
school  at  Sitka  may  be  heard.  It  is  the  high  goal  to  which  many  a:id  Indian 
youth  aspires,  and,  next  to  Carlisle,  is  the  most  lofty  aspiration. 

It  IS  a  sort  of  post-graduate  institution  lor  those  receiving  a  little  schooling 

The  Government  is  now  installing  industrial  schools  at  Nushagak,  Klana- 
kanak,  Alsik,  Chogiung,  Quinhagak,  Tagic,  Tanana,  Tatitleka,  Fort  ^  ukon. 
Circle  City  and  Eagle,  but  the  Presbyterians  at  Sitka  have  been  using  this  method 
for  years,  both  for  boys  and  girls.  I  examined  a  lot  of  their  work  last  year.  1  he 
most  important  consisted  of  the  building  of  a  parsonage  from  the  ground  to  the 
top  in  and  outside  such  as  would  be  creditable  in  any  city,  and  boats  of  ex- 
cellent construction.  I  see  that  they  are  capable  of  building  a  new  college  for 
themselves,  and  need  it.  I  think  the  church  or  some  philanthropic  person  should 
advance  the  money  for  the  material  and  put  them  to  work  at  it. 

The  tuition  is  normal,  the  instructions  are  good  in  the  lower  grades,  the 
Christian  environments  are  uplifting,  and  the  students  appear  so  clean,  polite  and 
different  from  those  of  same  age  found  elsewhere,  that  they  do  not  seem  to  be 
of  the  same  race. 

The  Russians  have  a  large  school  in  Sitka  also,  and  many  other  places 
in  Alaska.  So  that  now  almost  every  considerable  Indian  settlement  has  a 
Russian,  Government,  Episcopalian,  Presbyterian  mission  or  other  school  of 
some  kind. 

AlA.^K     .\.\|)     KA'ITI.I-:    <>!■■     I  .M  '  I  A  .\     iPucroK 

l'(  i'|-|,A'l'<  '11     I  >ISII    <  II'    \\i  >i  i| 


II.sll  AND  I-UR. 

1  lif  pioducls  ol  tin-  lisli  ,incJ  lur  industry  belwcen  Dixon  Lntrantc  and 
Cooks  Inlet  for  1908  will  a^KifKate  about  eight  millions  of  dollars,  and  employ 
about  ten  thousand  persons.  I  he  professional  trapper  and  hunter  has  largely 
given  way  to  a  modern  commercial  corporation.  I  he  fishing  and  cannery  work 
IS  done  by  Indian,  (  hinesc  and  Japanese,  under  directions  of  a  while  superin- 

Many  of  the  cod  and  halibut  boats  tie  up  in  Puget  Sound  for  the  winter, 
and  the  canney  crews  during  the  off  season  go  to  their  homes,  or  other  em- 

The  Government  keeps  several  cruisers,  cutters  and  other  boats  for  service 
on  the  Pacific  and  Arctic  seas,  most  important  of  which  is  the  fleet  of  revenue 

The  most  difficult  duly  for  these  cutters  is  to  watch  the  seal  heard,  and  ap- 
prehend alien  poachers  who  attempt  to  raid  the  rookies  or  fish  within  the  three- 
mile  limit.  At  this  moment  the  fleet  lies  beautifully  at  rest  in  the  harbor  at  Seattle 
(April  29th,  1909),  and  the  news  is  cabled  down  that  the  seal  heard  is  going 
north  to  the  Pribloff  Islands,  and  is  now  passing  Sitka,  followed  by  Japanese 
poachers,  who  are  taking  them  illegally,  without  hindrance.  But  that  kind  of 
service  to  Alaska  is  about  the  same  as  it  has  received  since  I  867.  A  few  days 
later  Mr.  Shoup,  U.  S.  Marshall  at  Sitka,  armed  a  launch  and  took  about  30 
Japanese  poachers,   I  2  skins  and  a  boat,  for  illegal  sealing. 

A  more  specific  statement  of  the  fur  and  fish  industry  will  be  included  in 
the  second  division  of  this  book. 


The  modern,  large  and  well  constructed  light  houses  on  the  coast  of  Canada 
and  the  numerous  other  lights,  bouys  and  aids  to  navagation  make  a  striking 
contrast  to  the  small,  ill-looking  light  houses,  drifting  bouys  and  absent  aids  on 
the  Alaska  coast.  We  should  have  had  an  appropriation  of  a  quarter  million 
for  such  aids  from  the  last  Congress;  instead  the  puny  sum  of  sixty  thousand 
dollars  was  allowed.  It  was  reported  that  Captain  Pond  would  this  year  place 
I  1  7  aids,  including  I  3  fog  signals  and  72  lights  between  Dixon  Entrance  and 
Valdez,  but  the  amount  of  relief  can  be  best  surmised  from  the  amount  to  be  ex- 
pended. Congress  overlooks  the  fact  that  the  inside  passage  is  the  busiest  and 
most  dangerous  marine  highway  on  the  Pacific.  It  should  be  charged  with  man- 
slaughter for  the  numerous  loss  of  life  in  these  waters  because  of  its  criminal 


The  Pacific  Slope  of  the  Coast  Range  from  Dixon  Entrance  to  Cooks  Inlet 
is  densly  covered  with  timber. 

The  forest  to  a  stranger  appears  much  like  the  cedar,  fir  and  hemlock  of 
Washingeon,  but  it  is  not  the  same  at  all. 

The  trees  grow  shorter,  the  limbs  nearer  to  the  ground,  the  wood  becomes 
softer  and  lighter,  as  we  proceed  northward  from  Puget  Sound.  By  the  time 
Dixon  Entrance  is  reached  no  first-class  timber  for  commercial  purposes  is  found. 
The  strength  and  weight  of  the  timber  on  the  coast  of  Alaska  is  about  the  same 
as  eastern  cotton  wood  or  linn. 

The  Government  has  made  no  cruise,  estimate,  or  even  reconnoissance  of 
Alaska  timber,  and  I  was  unable  to  get  any  valuable  information  from  it.  con- 
sequently my  statement  is  made  on  my  test. and  enquiry  at  the  mills  along  the 


1  he  early  reports  and  the  statements  of  most  authors  about  the  "mex- 
haustable  timber  supply,"  some  going  so  far  as  to  say  it  was  superior  to  any  m 
the  world,  are  entirely  untrue,  and  have  been  very  misleading. 

This  fifteen  hundred  miles  of  coast  forest  in  Alaska  will  produce  no  first- 
class  lumber.  The  trees  have  grown  up  without  sunshine,  in  the  mist  and  fogs 
of  the  sea,  and  they  are  soft  and  porous  as  sponges.  When  the  lumber  is  dry 
it  will  weight  about  one-half  as  much  as  the  commercial  dry  lumber,  and  in 
time  it  may  furnish  material  for  boxes,  crates,  barrels  and  second  or  third  rate 
building  material  for  sheeting  and  the  like. 

There  are  saw  mills  at  all  the  larger  villages,  and  some  at  canneries  and 
mines,  but  the  output  is  for  local  use.  All  the  good  finishing  lumber,  bridge 
timber  and  the  like,  requiring  clear,  clean  and  strong  wood,  is  shipped  up  Irom 
Puget  Sound,  and  even  many  of  the  railroad  ties,  and  some  of  the  piling.  The 
timber  laws  of  Alaska  are  such  that  the  timber  cannot  be  obtained  for  outside 
trade.  It  wold  be  a  very  harmful  condition  if  the  timber  was  fit  for  outside 

Several  foresters  have  been  stationed  along  the  Coast  to  protect  the  timber, 
and  a  large  launch  for  their  use  will  be  completed  by  May  I,  1909,  with  which 
they  can  cruise  about  the  islands  and  shore.  Timber-testing  machinery  has  been 
installed  at  the  University  of  Washington,  where  teste  will  be  made  this  or  next 
year,  without  the  often  requested  Government  assistance. 


Prof.  C.  C.  Georgeson,  whose  residence  stands  on  the  history-famed  site 
of  Baranrof  s  Castle  at  Sitka,  is  at  the  head  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture 
for  Alaska,  and  ably  performs  his  duty. 

The  Coast  Range  descends  abruptly  to  the  sea  on  the  west,  and  there  are 
but  few  deltas,  gorges,  or  glacier  morains  large  enough  for  farming  or  gardening. 
Wherever  room  can  be  found  all  the  usual  garden  vegetables,  grasses,  berries 
and  such  grains  as  oates  and  barley  may  be  raised  successfully,  and  sufficient 
for  local  use. 

R.  W.  DeArmond,  of  Sitka,  has  charge  oi  the  experimental  station 
there;  James  W.  Gray  at  Kenai,  and  Mr.  Heideman  at  Copper  Center. 

At  these  stations  last  year  we  found,  growing  successfully,  cabbage,  cauli- 
flower, parsnips,  peas,  carrots,  beets,  lettuce,  parsley,  onions,  leek,  radish,  turnips, 
rutabaga,  potatoes,  rape,  beans,  blue  grass,  red  top.  meadow  grass,  timothy, 
wheat,  barley,  oats,  rye,  strawberries,  raspberries,  gooseberries,  red  and  black 
currants,  salmon  berries  and  a  cross  between  the  salmon  and  raspberry,  accom- 
by  Prof.  Georgeson. 

Berries  wild  and  abundant  everywhere  in  Alaska,  .\iid  suflicient  at  this 
le  to  supply  local  needs.  Beach  hay.  \sild  timothy  and  blue  grass  may  be 
in  large  tracts  without  clulivation.  because  of  the  rainfall  and  fogs  and 
lack  of  sunshine,  it  is  deficient  in  sacharine  and  hard  to  cure.  T  ruit  trees  do  not 
seem  to  grow  well,  and  the  rains  wash  the  polen  off  so  that  little  or  no  Iruit 
results.  In  the  Copper  River  country,  where  the  rain  fall  is  slight,  the  grain,  m 
fact  everything,  matures  better,  and  several  farmers  have  taken  up  homesteads 
and  are  farming  successfully.  In  llic  summer  the  long  hot  days,  and  small  rain- 
fall, may  require  irrigation  for  the  best  results,  but  the  water  is  easily  obtainable, 
and  the  yield  is  enormous.  C  attle  and  horses  may  be  found  at  all  the  villages 
1^  some   of    the   mines    and   canneries,    doing    well    on    native    grasses,    requiring 


little  oi  no  wiiilci  (arc  or  Iced,  cxc*"!)!  shelter  Irom  the  rains,  and  hay  in  case 
the  snow  covers  the  ground,  which  is  not  frequent.  I  he  productions  of  Alaska 
will  he  marvels  in  the  sight  of  those  who  have  heretofore  looked  upon  it  as  an 


A  cable  runs  Irom  Seattle  a. id  I 'oil  I  ownsend.  to  all  the  most  important 
rommercial  stations  on  the  Coast  as  lar  north  as  Seward,  including  Ketchikan, 
I  ladley,  Wrangell,  Petersburg,  Juneau,  Sitka,  Skaguay.  f  lames  Mission,  Fort 
Liscum.  C  ordova  and  Valdez,  in  all  2,592  miles,  to  which  more  is  being  added 
from  time  to  lime.  The  phone  lines,  telegraph  and  wireless  branches  in  Alaska 
are  feeders.  Almost  any  well  known  point  in  Alaska  can  be  reached  now  by 
cable,  wireless,  or  wire  communication  or  all  combined.  The  Government  has 
suppleemnted  its  Coast  service  by  a  system  of  wireless  stations,  which  work  well 
at  night  but  not  during  the  day.  The  United  Wireless,  a  corporation,  has 
almost  duplicated  the  Government  wires  and  wireless  in  Alaska,  and  it  assumes 
tho  private  business  of  the  country. 

The  cable-ship,  Burnsides,  is  always  busy  repairing,  or  extending  cable, 
and  although  the  Government  expense  has  been  large,  the  income  justifies  it. 



The  Aleutian  Islands  and  Coast?  cf  Bering  Sea  and  Arctic  Ocean  Irom  Cooks 

Inlet  to  Point  Barrow. 



There  is  a  wider  dissimilarity  between  these  islands  and  the  first  division 
of  Alasl^a  than  exists  between  the  plains  of  Kansas  and  wooded  lands  of  Maine. 

[n  place  of  the  jagged  granite  islands  and  mountains  of  the  timbered 
shores,  we  find  oval  topped,  beautifully  rounded  domes,  symmetrically  curved 
and  robed  in  dark  green  grass.  In  contrast  to  the  daily  steamers,  one  lone 
monthly  boat  breaks  the  silence  of  this  strange  northland.  The  yet  ash  covered 
jed  peaks  appear  too  new  for  vegetation  and  are  void  of  mineral. 

y thing   is  on   a   grand   scale.      The    Black  or   Japanese   Current    (T  he 
Kuio-Shiwo)   bathes  the  shores  and  fills  the  air  with  perpetual  spring; 

I  he  long  sweeping  curve  of  islands  extending  nearly  to  the  shores  of  Siberia 
and  Japan; 

The  wide-spreading  blue  vault  of  the  heavens;  the  limitless  expanse  of  the 
variegated  ocean ;  and  the  whole  days  glow  and  matchless  setting  of  an  Arctic 
summer  sun.  There  dwells  in  this  land  a  spirit  of  almost  pitiful,  lovely  loneli- 

A  few  small  boats  are  owned  among  the  islands,  a  cod,  halibut  or  whaler 
puts  in  for  shelter  or  water  at  times,  or  the  smoke  of  some  vessel  seen  far  out  at 
sea,  are  about  the  only  signs  of  the  busy  life  of  the  outside  world. 

Bristol  Bay  and  Cooks  Inlet  are  almost  united  by  Clark  and  Iliamna 
Lakes,  and  at  several  other  places  the  peninsula  is  nearly  severed.  Some  time 
a  waterway  will  be  made,  which  will  shorten  the  route  to  Nome  and  the  Arctic 
almost  a  thousand  miles. 

Tri-oh-nek,  Toyonak,  Kustatan,  on  Cooks  Inlet;  Nikhkak,  on  Lake  Clark; 
Kak-ho-nak,  Kas-an-ahk,  Iliamna,  on  Lake  Iliamna;  Katmai,  Kaguyak,  Kami- 
shak,  Chignik,  and  Douglass  on  Shelikof  Strait;  Koggiung,  Kwichakh,  Kiniaak, 
Naknek,  Ugaguk,  Nushagak,  Igagig  and  Fort  Alexander  on  Bristol  Bay,  are 
all  native  or  Russian  villages  now  or  heretofore  occupied  by  the  natives  or 
Russisna,  or  both,  on  the  Alaska  Peninsula.  Also  St.  Paul,  Orlova,  .Alsentic. 
Karluk,  Uyak,  and  Kadiak  on  Kadiak  Island.  All  of  the  larger  and  some 
of  the  smaller  islands  are  occupied  with  from  one  to  one  hundred  natives. 
Russians  and  Creoles.  Unga,  Dutch  Harbor,  Unalaska,  Nikolski  are  among 
the  most  important  settlements.  The  Russian  estimate  of  Aleut  population 
for  the  peninsula  and  Island  was  10,000;  they  may  number  hall  that  many 
now,  and  among  them  3,000  other  bloods  and  Creoles.  I  he  Governor,  in  his 
last  report,  estimated  the  whole  Alaska  population  at  3  LOGO  whites;  33,000 
natives,  and  7,000  mixed,  who  work  in  .Alaska  in  summer  and  go  elsewhere 
for  winter.  My  own  opinion  is  that  a  census  will  give  the  whole  native  popu- 
lation at  about  30,000,  resident  whites  35,000  and  non-residents  who  work 
in  Alaska   in  summer  only  at   20,000. 


I  line  arc  no  hmsoiis  to  appu'liciid  .111  increase  ol  population  amon^  the 
Aleuls   in   the   near   luture.       I  he   mouiilains   and   islands   are   poor   in    resources. 

1  he  )a;overnmenl  reports  copper  at  Kamishak  Bay.  coal  or  coal  hearing  rocks 
on    Port    Moller.    Stcpovak.    Chignik    and    Katmai    Bays    and    on    Kodiak    and 

I  rinity  Islands,  and  gold  and  silver  lode  on  Unalaska.  and  (jctrolcum  seep- 
age at  the  entrance  of  Cooks  Inlet,  hut  these  are  all  mere  prospects,  as  a  rule 
not   very  encouraging. 

I  he  beaver,  once  i)liii(ilul,  is  rarely  seen  now,  likewise  the  land  otter. 
1  he  Schooner  Shallcngc.  owned  by  Henry  Dirks,  of  Aaka  Island,  and  used 
for  sea  otter  hunting,  has  been  sold  to  the  whalers.  Mr.  Charles  Rosenberg 
and  his  son  patrol  thirty  miles  of  sea  off  Unimak  and  took  three  skins  last 
year.  The  Kodiak  bear  is  the  largest  known  species  of  that  animal.  Sports- 
men Irom  all  quarters  of  the  globe  long  to  add  him  to  their  store  of  trophies, 
but  the  native  keeps  a  safe  distance.  The  Aleut  takes  a  few  fur  seal  during 
the  migration  of  the  herd.  The  walrus,  once  plentiful,  is  now  almost  extinct 
south  of  Bering  Strait.  There  is  a  small  catch  of  land  furs.  One  hundred 
years  ago  this  country,  land  and  sea.  was  literally  alive  with  valuable  fur.  Now 
it  is  poor  in  every  resource  except  fish.  For  foods  the  natives  (and  Russians) 
love  the  sea  urchin.  One  old  Russian  lady  with  us  last  year  ate  them  alive  and 
raw.  as  we  do  oysters.  Mussels  are  plentiful  and  palatable,  and  the  octopus, 
crab  and  some  clams  are  used.  The  hair  seal  and  salmon  are  the  main 

I  here  are  twenty-seven  canneries  and  salteries  on  the  Alaska  Peninsula 
and  Aleutian  Islands.  These  furnish  the  largest  part  of  home  employment. 
Some  of  the  natives  are  employed  in  other  fisheries  and  on  the  cod,  halibut 
and  whaling  boats  away  from  home;  others  on  Cooks  Inlet  and  Prince  Williams 

/^  Garden  vegetables,  cattle  and  sheep  do  well,  and  inasmuch  as  grasses  grow 
luxuriantly,  it  would  seem  that  in  time  the  country  should  provide  a  comfortable 
aTO.4irofttable  home  for  a  large  population. 

C.  H.  Fry.  the  packer,  has  a  large  stock  farm  at  Kodiak.  where  a  dozen 
horses,  200  cattle  and  200  sheep  thrive,  increase  and  keep  fat  the  year  through 
on  native  feed,  consisting  of  beach  grass,  blue  top,  timothy  and  willows.  A 
small  amount  of  hay  and  silage  is  prepared  for  feed  at  such  times  as  the  snow 
may  cover  the  winter  pasture.     Frost  may  be  expected  about  September  I  st. 

The  Government  station  at  Kodiak.  and  Calinsky  Bay  near  by,  have  a 
herd   of   fifty   Galloway    cattle,    from   which    it    is    intended    to   supply    the   local 

tand  for  cattle  of  a  hardy  breed,  and  provide  a  dairy  for  Kodiak. 
A    good    harrowing    of    the    native    soil    easily    prepares    the    ground    tor 
thy  or  grain  feeds,  over  which  a  mowing  machine  can  be  run. 
Four   or   five   homesteads   have   been    taken   up   on    Kodiak.      The    indus- 
trial schools  and  experiment  stations  will  open  the  way  for  new  resources. 

The  Government  has  extensive  fish  hatcheries  at  Afognak  Island  and  Kar- 
luk  River.  Bristol  Bay  and  Shelikof  Straits  afford  the  best  commercial  salmon 
fishing  waters  of  Alaska.  Even  the  Kuskoquim  River  is  producing  fish  for 
outside  market.  While  all  the  large  rivers  northward  from  Bristol  Bay  supply 
the  natives  and  miners,  they  will  perhaps  never  produce  many  fish  for  the 

The  fish  industry  ot  Alaska  is  enormous,  employing  13,337  men,  one- 
half  whites,  the  remainder  equally  divided  between  Japs,  Chinese  and  natives, 
last  year.  The  capital  invested  exceeds  ten  million  dollars.  Over  t\vo  hundred 
seventeen  million  fish  were  taken  out  last  year,  amounting  to  over  eleven  mil- 
lions of  dollars.      (Nothing  but  whalebone  and  walrus  ivory  from  the  Arctic.) 


There  are  approximately  thirty  canneries  and  forty  saUeries  in  Alaska.  I  he 
catch  includes  principally  salmon,  halibut,  cod,  whale,  herring,  crabs,  clams  and 

The  salmon  output  last  year,  given  in  cases  and  values,  as  69,000  coho 
or  silver,  valued  at  $275,000;  218,000  dog,  at  $554,000;  664,00  hump- 
back, value  $  1 .700,000;  24,000  king,  value  $100,000;  and  1,663.000  red 
sockeye,   value   $7,318,000. 

These  fish  were  caught  generally  either  with  gillnet,  seine,  or  trap.  But 
most  excellent  sport  can  be  had  with  a  king  salmon  weighing  fifty  pounds  at 
the  end  of  a  light  trout  rod  and  silk  line.  Use  Hendryx  Seattle  trout  bait 
spoon  No.  5.  A  steelhead  salmon  puts  up  a  noble  fight,  likewise  the  coho.  A 
tenderfoot  will  find  much  enjoyment  in  chasing  crabs  in  four  feet  of  water  or 
less.  After  the  required  number  have  been  caught,  boil  them  alive  in  the  sea 
water.  No  more  palatable  morsel  could  be  imagined.  All  the  crabs  are 
cooked  this  way  before  being  shipped. 

In  any  non-glacial  stream,  the  Dolly  Varden  (salmon  trout)  may  be 
hooked  in  large  numbers  on  the  salmon  spawning  grounds.  They  weigh  on  an 
average  two  pounds,  and  will  make  interesting  sport  with  a  light  trout  rod. 
The  large  salmon  come  up  the  stream  when  the  tide  is  about  two  feet  high  or 
more,  then  the  trout  disappear  up  stream,  until  the  salmon  have  gone  to  sea 
again,  with  the  ebbing  tide. 

Last  year  385  persons  were  engaged  in  halibut  fishing,  the  catch  bringing 
$1  74.000;  almost  as  many  more  in  the  cod  fishing  marketed  $1  34,000.  These 
figures  are  under  estimates,  as  large  quantities  of  fish  are  taken  ot  which 
no    record   has   been    made. 

Halibut  and  cod  boats  go  up  from  San  Francisco  or  Puget  Sound  and 
fish  during  the  summer  in  all  the  coast  waters.  The  larger  boats  go  into 
Bering  Sea,  or  on  the  ocean  side  of  the  islands.  Numerous  stations  are  estab- 
lished on  the  shores,  from  which  fishermen  in  "dories"  go  out  and  catch 
the  fish  hand  over  hand  at  the  end  of  hook  and  line.  Some  of  the  boats  return 
to  Seattle  with  from  fifty  to  a  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  fish.  No  one  has 
ever  claimed  that  it  was  sport  to  catch  these  big,  lazy  fish.  But  many  a  man. 
broken  in  health,  has  returned  from  the  Alaskan  codfish  waters,  after  a  sum- 
mer's outing  on  the  sea  with  a  codfish  diet,  retstored  to  perfect  health. 


A  chain  or  system  of  mountains  extends  from  Cape  Horn  to  Attu.  tin- 
longest  on  the  globe,  and  perhaps  the  newest. 

Its  eastern  slopes  are  more  gentle,  the  western  descends  precipitously  into 
the  Pacific  Ocean — or  rather  at  one  time  arose  abruptly  out  of  it. 

Of  Alaska  the  early  explorers  and  geographers  for  many  years  made 
maps  showing  a  continuous  chain  parallel  with  the  coast,  and  so  it  appears  to 
one  at  a  distance  on  the  sea;  nevertheless  it  is  bioken  up  in  groups  known  in 
Southeastern  Alaska  as  the  Cascades.  St.  Elias.  Wrangell.  Chugach.  and 
Kenai  Ranges,  and  in  Western  Alaska  as  Aleutian  Range. 

Recent  lava  flows  and  volcanic  action  is  first  noticeable  near  Dixon  En- 
trance, then  at  Sitka,  where  Mt.  Edgecombe  was  active  for  about  a  half  century 
after  discovery  by  the  Russians.  But  the  smoking  craters  now  begin  near 
Cooii^Inlet.  and  of  the  150  volcanic  cones  an  average  of  ten  arc  active.  Shishal- 
dyC  near  Unimak  Pass,  being  the  most  prominent. 

The  Aleutian  Islands  are  but  mountain  tops  of  a  range  still  growinv,'. 
Each  year  new  islands  appear,  volcanoes  are  created,  and  the  continent  en- 
;roaches  a  little  more  on  the  sea.  But  the  crust  is  cooling  fast,  soon  the  last 
vMcano  will  cease  to  belch  fire  and  the  day  of  creation  will  be  at  an  end. 


Bogslol  IsI.ukI  is  |)(iI)<»|)s  till-  inosl  attractive  of  tin-  m-w-born  islands; 
its  oldest  peak  shot  out  of  the  ocean  in  1796  to  a  height  of  800  feet;  others 
have  heen  created  and  some  have  disappeared  since.  In  1906  the  revenue 
cutter  Pcrr\}  was  near  by  when  a  new  island,  now  known  as  F^erry  Island,  was 
created,  and  a  year  ago  still  another  appeared,  at  which  time  the  revenue 
cutter  McCtillnugh  was  near.  I  he  officers  of  the  latter,  as  soon  as  possible, 
climbed  over  the  steaming  cone  and  took  photographs  of  it. 

Although  the  sulphur  fumes  and  steam  are  disagreeable,  sea  lions  and  birds 
are  already  making  it  their  home,  and  the  Government  during  the  last  days 
of  Roosevelt's  park-making  adminislraticn  made  it  a  bird  reserve. 

The  red  peaks,  bare  of  vegetation,  are  common,  and  the  dark  red  ash  is 
everywhere  apparent.  I  he  account  given  by  the  Harriman  expedition  is  very 
explicit,  and  another  is  expected  any  time  from  scientific  reconnoissance  made 
made  west  of  Unimak  last  year. 

The  Coast  Range  and  Rocky  Mountains  seem  to  terminate  in  a  grand 
climax  of  peaks  above  Cooks  Inlet,  or  unite  in  the  Aleutian  Range,  which  is 
more  and  more  submerged  until  only  the  very  highest  appear  nearly  at  the  shores 
of  Japan.  Whichever  the  fact  may  be,  it  is  very  evident  that  the  Aleutian 
Mountains  are  hundreds  of  years  younger  and  of  a  decidedly  different  forma- 

The  Coast  Range  from  Mexico  to  Cooks  Inlet  consists  generally  of  three 
kinds  of  material,  erected  in  as  many  distinct  epochs. 

First. — Following  the  Silurian  and  Devonian  ages,  sediments  settled,  solidi- 
fied and  hardened,  becoming  flexible  sandstone,  limestone  and  the  like.  These 
water-made,  stratified  material  form  the  foundation  and  lower  one-fourth  of 
the  range.  1  hese  old  rocks  are  often  found  doubled,  faulted,  buckled  and 
twisted,  from  which  it  is  concluded  that  the  first  step  in  building  these  moun- 
tains must  have  been  in  the  pliable  age,  when  a  great  fold  was  raised  in  the 
earth's  crust  where  the  range  now  stands.  The  latter  periods  of  these  rocks 
bear  fossils  and  signs  of  living  creatures;  the  older  ones  do  not.  They  did  not 
seem  to  be  mineralized,  but  in  later  periods  seams  and  pores  were  sometimes 
filled  with  minerals  by  intense  internal  heats,  the  action  of  gases,  water  or 

Second. — After  the  fold  had  become  hardened,  and  perhaps  after  many 
coal  beds  had  been  formed  (as  they  are  found  pitched  up  edgewise  like  the  sand 
and  limestone),  it  was  opened,  and  through  a  crack  the  length  of  the  range, 
from  the  interior  was  forced,  not  a  sedimentary,  but  a  fire-made  (igneous) 
rock,  much  of  which  is  classified  or  known  to  the  miner  and  geologist  as  the 
"Greenstones.  "  They  are  highly  mineralized,  and  the  period  was  the  most 
mineral-producing  of  any,  and  in  this  second  belt  or  period  the  miner  expects 
to  make  his  "strike.'  It  occupies  the  second  one-fourth  of  the  bulk  of  the 

Third. — At  a  much  later  period,  and  again  by  internal  force,  the  range 
was  opeend  up  and  the  great  diorite  granitic  cone  or  center  piled  high  upon 
the  others,  sealing  it  (excepting  volcanoes)  forever.  This  igneous  rock  com- 
poses about  half  the  material  of  the  range,  contains  little  mineral  and  forms 
a  hard  cap  almost  irresistible  to  the  elements.  This  upheaval  at  least  opened 
up  the  seams,  exposed  the  mineral  to  the  elements,  and  forced  it  into  the  softer 
and  more  porous  rocks,  where  frost,  ram.  snow,  glacier  river,  and  at  last  man 
can  get  it. 

If  we  compare  the  mountains  to  a  book,  then  each  age  will  be  a  leaf, 
and  when  turned  back  we  plainly  read  in  unmistakable  records  of  stone,  the 
creation  and  evolution  of  every  creature,  from  the  beginning  of  land  and  sea, 
animal  and  vegetable;  also  of  the  minerals,  upheavals  and  construction  of  the 


We  cannot  fully  open  the  pages,  but  the  rains,  snows,  glaciers,  frosts, 
rivers  and  miners  have  hewn  deeply,  and  the  eruptions  have  broken  the  lids 
and  revealed  records  made  thousands  of  years  before  the  date  set  as  the  date 
of   creation. 

Chapter  one — "In  the  beginning  the  earth  was  without  form  and  void;" 
chapter  two  and  three  and  so  on,  until  the  sediments  began  to  settle,  and 
then  other  chapters  while  they  became  resisting  crusts,  pushed  up  out  of  the 
water,  carrying  coral,  sea  grass,  shells,  and  the  lowest  forms  of  sea  life,  etc. 

Land  and  water  being  separated,  the  warm  muds  and  slimes  bgan  to 
develop  crawling  reptiles;  as  they  pushed  up  higher  vegetation  began  to  grow, 
and  walking  animals  developed  to  eat  it. 

Before  this  range  was  formed,  the  storms,  and  upheavals  gathered  the 
slimes  and  tropical  vegetation  into  the  sags,  then  covered  them  over,  preserving 
the  coal  and  oil  for  our  use,  and  the  records  and  pictures  for  our  enlighten- 

The  general  forms  of  the  prehistoric  forests  of  Alaska  were  similar  to  our 
ferns  and  evergreens,  but  on  a  larger  scale.  Could  it  be  possible  that  the  present 
dense  woods  date  back  to  a  parent  so  old? 

These   mountains   present   to   the   student    and    intelligent    miner   volumes 
information  on  their  upturned  stratas. 

The  growth,  or  ageing  of  the  range  is  no  less  interesting.  Just  as  the 
wood  of  the  tree  or  bones  of  the  man  grow  dryer,  harder  and  mature,  then 
age  and  decay,  so  the  rocks  become  metamorphosed,  shistose  and  shaley. 

The  sediments  of  one  age  become  the  limestone  of  the  next  and  marble 
of  the  next ;  the  sands  of  the  river  and  sea  become  sandstone,  and  the  volcanic 
or  eruptive  intrusives  become  granite. 

Five  thousand  years  ago  the  present  deserts  oi  Africa,  India,  and  China; 
were  the  centers  of  the  most  advanced  human  habitations  and  covered  with| 
fertile  fields  of  grain;  they  have  died  with  the  age. 

How  many  ages  we  have  had,  we  hardly  know,  but  here  m  Alaska  the 
sedimentary  age,  the  age  of  greenstones,  and  of  the  diorite,  are  plainly  shown ; 
the  coal  age,  the  period  of  plant  life,  of  reptiles,  and  of  mastodons,  and  the 
glacial  period  are  as  unmistakably  disclosed. 

This    is    the    age    that    yields    to    drouth,    crystallization    and    fire;    the    a^ 
before  it  yielded  to  the  ice  cap  and  the  floods. 


I  he  low,  bleak,  treeless  tundra-covered  shores  of  Bering  Sea  and  Arctic 
Ocean  are  but  mud  banks  frozen  many  feet  deep,  thawing  a  few  feet  in  sum- 
mer, extending  northward  and  eastward  from  Bristol  Bay  for  two  thousand 
miles,  quite  similar  at  all  places.  The  Kaiyuh  Mountains  east  of  Norton 
Sound,  and  Baird  Mountains  east  of  Kotzebu  Sound,  and  occasionally  a  few 
rounded  hills  rising  above  the  ordinary  country,  break  the  even  sky  line  on  the 
horizon.  Miles  of  beautiful  flowers  adorn  the  mosses  during  the  short  summer; 
at  the  same  time  mosquitoes  arise  to  make  life  miserable   for  every   living  thing. 


St.  Paul,  St.  George,  Walrus,  and  Otter  Islands,  with  some  other  rock 
points,  constitute  the  group  of  seal  islands  in  Bering  Sea,  isolated  by  about 
two  hundred  miles  of  water  from  any  other  land,  free  from  the  Arctic  ice  pack 
and  icebergs,  and  consequently  free  from  the  native  hunter  and  polar  bear. 

About  I  700  A.  D.  a  Russian  by  the  name  ol  Altasov  made  ol  the 
fur  seal  taken  on  the  location  of  the  present  seal  rookeries  on  the  Asiatic 
coast,  and  later  on  an  extensive  fur  seal  trade  was  developed  in  the  Antarctic 


Sonu-  seal  wtic  taken  l)y  Sicllcr  and  I^criiiK  cxijeclilion  wliilc  wrecked  on 
Bering  Island.    I  74  I -2.  " 

Pacov  discovered  Fox  Island,  1759;  Glotlov  explored  Kodiak.  1763; 
Krenilain  is  credited  with  Alaska  Peninsula.  I  768.  and  numerous  Russian 
traders  frequented  all  parts  of  these  waters  then,  and  the  sea  otter  was  already 
becoming  scarce.  7  he  fur  seal  was  seen  going  spring  and  fall  (like  the  birds) 
through  the  passes  of  the  Aleutian  Islands  and,  although  the  ships  attempted 
to  follow,  they  were  never  able  to  locate  their  destiny  any  more  than  they  could 
find  the  home  of  the  winds. 

The  Aleuts,  however,  knew  of  the  seal  islands,  which  they  called  "Aleek." 
and.  with  this  information.  Subov  and  Pribylov,  after  several  years  search, 
located  them  in  July,  I  786.  Pribylov  gave  them  the  name  of  Subov.  but 
for  some  reason  they  later  took  his  own — he  died  in  Sitka,   I  796. 

The  islands  were  uninhabited  by  men,  although  the  remams  of  a  recent 
fire,  a  pipe  and  brass  handle  of  a  knife  were  found  on  the  shore. 

In  I  787-8  the  Russians  located  some  Aleuts  on  the  islands,  and  from 
that  time  to  this  they  have  possessed  a  population  averaging  200,  now  263, 
and  gaining  at  the  rate  of  three  per  annum,  bearing  Russian  names,  belonging 
to  the  Greek  Church,  but  mostly  of  Aleut  blood. 

The  seal  were  almost  depleted  in  1  796,  and  the  huntmg  rights  were 
leased  to  the  Russian-American  Fur  Company  in  I  799,  and  steps  taken  to 
increase  them.  An  unusually  cold  winter  nearly  destroyed  them  in  1 834. 
but  they  were  increased  again.  In  1  867  they  became  the  property  of  the  United 
States,  and  in  1870  were  leased  to  the  Alaska  Commercial  Company,  the 
highest  bidder    (headed  by   H.    M.    Hutchinson),   for  twenty  years. 

In  1  868,  Hutchinson,  Ebenezer  Morgan  and  others  took  a  large  number, 
as  the  herd  was  open  to  all.  The  followmg  year  no  hunting  was  allowed 
except  for  food.  When  Professor  Elliott  took  charge  of  the  islands  for  the 
Government  and  on  behalf  of  the  Smithsonian  Institute,  there  were  five  million 
seal.    1872-6. 

The  lease  to  the  Alaska  Commercial  Company,  pursuant  to  the  Act  of 
July  I,  1870,  limited  the  kill  to  100,000  per  year,  provided  for  a  rental  not 
less  than  $50,000  per  year,  secured  by  United  States  bonds,  and  for  a  bond 
of  a  half  million  from  the  lessee  guaranteeing  the  terms  of  the  lease.  At  that 
time  and  since  all  kinds  of  laws  have  been  made,  regulating  the  weapons  used, 
boats,  territory,  season,  sex  and  age  of  seals  taken,  agents,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.,  and 
the  administration  of  the  laws  has  been  booted  from  one  department  or  com- 
mission  to   another  like  a   football. 

The  result  has  been  that  our  own  citizens  (excepting  the  lessee)  have 
been  prohibited  from  sealing;  a  treaty  with  England  has  limited  the  Canadian 
poachers,  but  all  others  may  take  any  kind  of  seal  any  time  and  manner  or  place 
outside  of  the  three-mile  limit.  The  Japanese  have  availed  themselves  of  this 
privilege,  and,  in  addition,  have  violated  every  law,  of  God  and  man.  They 
raid  the  rookeries,  murder  the  mothers  and  pups,  regardless  of  age  or  sex,  and 
will  soon  exterminate  the  herd,  while  their  government  makes  no  effort  to  check 
them,  nor  join  in  the  treaty  existing  humanely  between  the  United  States  and 
England,  which  could  be  done  any  day. 

The  report  to  the  Sixtieth  Congress,  1908,  shows  only  172.512  seal 
of  all  ages  and  sex.  The  limit  of  the  lessee's  annual  slaughter  has  been  cut 
down  to  15.000  bachelor  seals,  and  even  that  number  may  not  be  obtained. 
A  fleet  of  about  thirty  Japanese  sealing  vessels  hovers  about  the  islands,  and 
any  mother  seal  venturing  beyond  the  three-mile  limit  for  food  is  promptly  shot, 
while  her  pup.  which  no  other  seal  will  suckle,  starves  to  death  on  the  shore. 
At  night  time,  during  fogs,  and  any  other  time  possible,  they  come  within  the 
three-mile    limit,    and    even    on    shore,    to    kill    illegally.       They    also    follow    the 


herd  up  and  down  the  coast,  and  at  this  time.  May  I  st,  are  near  Sitka  killing 
seal.  The  seal  are  due  at  the  breeding  ground  about  two  weeks  later,  and 
will  produce  their  young  immediately  after  arriving,  so  that  the  slaughter  of 
every  mother  now  is  the  death  of  two.  The  Japanese  and  Canadian  catch 
amounts  to  about  1 0,000  skins  annually  each,  and  the  Alaska  Commercial 
Company  (or  its  successor,  the  North  American  Commercial  Company,). 
1  5,000  m  round  numbers,  according  to  the  number  of  skins  for  sale  in  the 
London  market.  The  Jap  uses  a  gun,  and  three  out  of  ten  seal  killed  are  lost, 
and  numerous  others  wounded  escape  to  die  later.  The  time  is  coming  when 
the  seal  business  must  be  brought  to  a  close.  If  foreign  countries  will  not  be 
humane  enough  to  join  in  a  protecting  treaty,  and  their  subjects  to  abide  by  it. 
then  there  is  no  use  of  our  Government  employing  four  revenue  cutters  annually, 
paying  $20,000  for  support  of  the  natives,  and  numerous  other  sums,  anci  run 
the  risks  of  international  complications,  for  the  purpose  of  raising  and  protecting 
seals  for  other  people  to  kill.  Numerous  Jap  pelagic  illegal  sealers  have  been 
taken  in  the  very  act,  some  have  been  released,  a  few  were  shot  in  resisting 
capture,  and  the  last  bunch  of  I  I  8  we  were  obliged  to  haul  around  to  Valdez. 
and  keep  them  a  long  time.  They  were  recently  fined  by  Judge  Reid  $800 
each  or  300  days  in  jail — the  latter  will  be  accepted,  and  they  will  be  hos- 
pitably   entertained    at   our   expense. 

I  understand  that  a  treaty  was  made  last  year  between  Russia  and  Japan, 
with  reference  to  sealing  on  Bering  and  Copper  Islands,  across  the  line.  I 
hope  this  is  the  forerunner  to  one  by  all  nations,  covering  all  seal  islands,  and 
if  it  IS  not  forthcoming,  it  seems  just  as  humane,  and  the  only  protection  to 
our  own  property,  and  the  most  economical  from  every  standpoint,  to  take  the 
skins  from  the  remnant  of  the  herd  at  once. 

The  natives  now  get  75  cents  for  each  skin.  At  one  time  they  made  more 
money  at  40  cents  per  skin.  The  company  takes  good  care  of  them ;  they  are 
advancing  intellectually,  have  some  school  privileges,  coal  to  burn,  a  doctor,  and 
the  climate  is  agreeable — rarely  exceeds  ten  degrees  below  zero. 

The  natives  take  annually  approximately  500  fox  skins,  from  the  blue 
fox,  including  one  white  fox  to  each  hundred  blue  ones,  the  profits  of  which 
are  about  the  same  as  from  the  seal  herd.  The  fox  industry  is  nicely  cared 
for,  no  trouble  and  little  expense,  and  can  be  protected.  A  sea  lion  is  sometimes 
captured,  but  they  are  shy  and  not  plentiful. 

Birds,  in  season,  come  in  countless  numbers,  some  garden  vegetables  can 
be  raised,  crab  and  shellfish  are  found,  and  the  hair  seal  could  be  relied  upon 
if  necessary.  The  seal  herd  has  eaten  or  scared  the  fish  away,  and  the  walrus 
is  practically  extinct  in  the  Bering  Sea.  likewise  the  sea  cow.  St.  George  has 
an  elevation  of  900,  and  St.  Paul  600  feet,  with  sandy  coves  convenient 
for  seal.  Walrus  and  Otter  Islands  are  but  rocks,  and  all  are  of  recent  volcanic 

The  seal  and  sea  lion  are  perhaps  the  most  intelligent  of  animal  kind. 
as  well  as  the  most  beautiful.  They  most  resemble  a  dog.  and  will  obey  in 
the  same  manner;  they  bark  somewhat  the  same,  cool  themselves  by  opening 
their  mouths  as  dogs  do,  and  have  a  somewhat  similar  head,  with  more  intelli- 
gent expression.  The  expense  of  the  fur  is  largely  due  to  the  work  in  pulling 
out  the  long  hairs,  clipping  and  coloring  the  fur.  and  tanning  the  hide.  No  skin 
is  of  much  value  without  this  extensive  preparation. 

The  male  seal  does  not  fully  mature  until  it  is  about  seven  years  old. 
when  it  may  weigh  600  pounds  and  measure  as  much  as  seven  feet.  It  then 
fights  for  its  harem  on  the  breeding  grounds,  and.  Mormon  or  I  urk-like.  main- 
tains as  many  wives  as  it  can  keep.  It  arrives  on  the  islands  covered  with 
fat.  and  for  three  months  during  the  breeding  season  rules  over  its  harem,  with 
little  sleep  and   no  food,  except  the  fat  of  its  own  body. 


I  lu-  tow  seal,  mcrk  .iiid  ohccliciil  lo  liiT  lord;  llif  ostracised,  haremless 
bachelor  seal  doomrd  (o  slauj^litrr ;  tlic  lordly  fiKhtin^  liarem  bull,  as  ho  fl^hts 
for  his  own  or  steals  from  another;  the  innocent,  soft-eyed.  hlattinK  lamblike 
pup,  and  numerous  other  intereslm^  features  of  this  almost  extinct  animal. 
are  so  interesting  as  to  make  it  almost  impossible  to  omit  them  from  this  brief 
comment.  When  the  first  lease  expired,  it  was  extended  for  twenty  years 
more  to  the  North  American  Commercial  Company.  In  all  the  lessees  have  taken 
almost  $40. ()()(). ()()()  from  the  islands,  and  the  Government  has  received  enough 
to  pay  a  good  profit  on  the  amount  invested  in  purchasing  Alaska. 


There  are  numerous  small  islands  around  Bristol  and  Kuskoquim  Bays, 
and  north  of  the  latter  are  Nunivak  and  Nelson  Islands,  both  large  and  inhab- 
ited by  the  Esquimaux.  A  hundred  miles  westward  are  Hall  and  St.  Mathews, 
of  no  value,  and  a  hundred  miles  north  of  them  is  the  large  island  St.  Law- 
rence, tundra-covered,  of  volcanic  construction,  and  eighty  miles  long,  visible 
from  Siberia   in   clear  weather;    discovered   by    Bering.    1728. 

Two  or  three  hundred  Escjuimaux  live  here,  and  in  good  weather  could 
reach  either  Siberia  or  Alaska.  Polar  bears  land  on  the  island  by  means  of 
icebergs,  which  usually  melt  soon  after  entering  the  warmer  waters  of  the  Jap- 
anese Current. 

The  sea  lion,  a  giant  furless  seal,  often  weighing  a  thousand  pounds, 
may  be  found  here,  as  well  as  in  numerous  other  places  on  the  Pacific  and 
Arctic  Coasts,  the  intestines  of  which  are  very  valuable  to  the  natives  for  water- 
proof clothing,  and  the  skin  for  boats.  Also  the  walrus,  which  is  another  yet 
larger  hairless  seal,  weighing  as  much  as  the  largest  horse  or  cow.  The  fur 
seal  can  waddle  along  at  about  one  mile  per  hour  on  land;  the  sea  lion  not 
half  so  fast,  and  the  walrus  scarcely  at  all,  and  they  make  comparatively  the 
same  difference  in  swimming.  Either  of  them  can  float  in  a  somnambulistic  siesta 
on  the  surface  of  the  ocean,  with  as  much  grace  as  they  can  bask  in  the  sun- 
shine on  the  shore,  and  they  can  remain  a  month  at  sea  with  no  inconvenience. 
They  usually  swim  two  or  three  feet  beneath  the  surface,  arising  at  times  for 
respiration.  The  oil  of  the  seal,  sea  lion  and  walrus  constitute  the  light,  fuel, 
and  a  large  part  of  the  fat  and  food  needed  by  the  natives  of  this  island. 
Their  flesh  fills  the  larder,  and  their  skins  make  the  boots,  boats,  summer  houses, 
and  some  of  the  clothing,  and  provide  thongs  and  leather  for  innumerable  pur- 
poses. The  walrus  skin  is  from  a  half  to  three  inches  thick.  The  animal  is 
a  helpless  bundle  of  blubber,  subsisting  on  clams  and  seaweed,  which  it  digs 
up  with  its  tusks  and  strong  whiskers  on  the  end  of  its  nose. 

Sledge  Island  (so  named  by  Cook  because  he  found  a  sledge  upon  it), 
near  Nome,  is  important  simply  because  it  can  be  reached  from  there ;  but 
King  Island  has  attracted  the  attention  of  all  who  have  seen  it  because  a  num- 
ber of  Esquimaux  hang  their  skin  houses  on  its  ledges  in  summer  and  burrow 
into  them  in  winter,  from  which  they  watch  for  animals  in  the  drift  of  the 
surrounding  sea.  Much  has  been  written  about  these  peculiar  people  being  the 
connecting  link  somehow  between  the  peoples  of  East  and  West,  but  it  seems 
they  are  the  same  as  all  the  other  Esquimaux,  except  that  they  have  changed 
their  modes  of  living,  building  and  burial  to  conform  to  the  rock  on  which 
they  live. 

The  Diomede  Islands  are  of  the  most  importance,  inasmuch  as  they  are 
mere  stepping  stones  between  East  Cape  of  Siberia  and  Cape  Prince  of  Wales 
in  Alaska,  some  of  them  in  Russia  and  some  in  Alaska.  From  these  islands 
the  mainland  on  either  side  is  plainly  in  view,  and  but  a  pleasure  journey  for  a 
small  boat,  or  a  day's  walk  when  frozen  over.  Their  inhabitants  now.  and  long 
before   the   advent   of   white   men.    were    Esquimaux,    trading   in   both    continents, 


and  by  them  the  Alaskans  went  to  Siberia  and  the  Siberians  to  Alaska.  On 
the  Siberian  side  the  Mongolian  blood  thickens  until  it  reaches  China  and 
Japan;  on  the  American  side  it  thins  until  it  reaches  at  least  to  Puget  Sound. 

There  are  no  islands  of  importance  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  belonging  to 
Alaska ;  however,  there  are  some  small  shore  islands  or  sand  spits  known  as 
Flaxman,  Barter,  Midway,  and  Thetis  Islands,  on  which  whalers  or  natives 
sometimes  winter.  East  of  the  boundary  line  is  Hershel  Island  on  one  side 
and  Geography  Islond  on  the  other  side  of  the  Mackenzie  River. 

Between  1770  and  1860  a  stream  of  explorers,  lead  by  Samuel  Hern, 
and  including  such  men  as  Franklin,  Beechey,  McClintock,  McKay,  Hood. 
Mackenzie  and  Richardson,  came  to  the  Arctic  in  search  of  it,  of  copper  or 
of  Ross  and  Franklin,  and  from  them  we  have  our  earliest  reliable  informa- 
tion concerning  the  natives. 

They  usually  came  from  the  Hudson  Bay  or  lake  regions  of  Canada, 
down  the  Copper  Mine  or  Mackenzie  Rivers.  They  reported  the  Esquimaux 
from  Icy  Cape  or  Point  Barrow  eastward  to  be  the  same  people  as  those  on 
Hudson  Bay  and  in  Labrador,  and  near  of  kin  to  those  of  Greenland.  The 
exploration  of  this  part  of  the  Alaska  shore  is  credited  to  these  overland  expe- 
ditions, and  IS  but  little  better  known  now. 

The  Northwest  Passage,  for  the  discovery  of  which  all  maritime  nations 
strove  for  three  hundred  and  fifty  years,  was  not  successfully  navigated  (ex- 
cepting possibly  some  whaler)  until  1903-7.  by  Amundsen,  in  the  Gjoa.  In 
these  vain  searches  several  hundred  men  lost  their  lives,  and  as  much  money 
was  appropriated  as  has  since  been  set  aside  to  discover  the  similarly  elusive 

Amundsen  found  the  Franklin  Monument,  placed  by  McClintock,  1858, 
and  some  of  the  supply  station  left  on  Beechey  Island,  1852,  for  Franklin, 
but  Franklin  and  his  brave  men  were  silent  in  death  not  many  miles  away, 
after  having  passed  through  the  coveted  passage. 

The  whole  Bering  and  Arctic  tundra-covered  coast  of  Alaska  is  thawed 
enough  on  the  lop  in  summer  to  grow  moss,  breed  mosquitoes,  and  fill  the  surface 
with  water;  in  winter  it  is  bleak,  snow-covered,  icebound,  blizzard-swept,  and 
at  all  times  it  is  the  most  uninviting  land  lor  man  or  beast.  I  he  land,  as  a 
rule,  slopes  back  gently,  with  low  mud  banks  along  the  sea  and  rivers.  The 
water,  loaded  with  mud,  flows  sluggishly  to  the  Bering  Sea.  which  is  now 
almost  filled,  so  that  near  the  mouths  of  large  rivers  boats  can  not  approach 
land,  and  can  find  anchorage  almost  anywhere  at  sea.  A  few  scattered  wil- 
lows or  birch  may  be  found  in  the  sheltered  valleys  or  river  banks.  otherNvisc 
it  is  a  waste  of  well-rounded,  cheerless,  treeless  hills,  interrupted  by  the  Nush- 
egak  Mountains  back  of  Kuskoquim  Bay;  Kusilvak,  Chantinak,  Kaiyuth.  and 
Kaltag  Mountains  back  of  Norton  Sound;  Hooper  Mountains  behind  Point 
Barrow,  and  Franklin  and  Romianl/ov  Mountains  inshore  from  Maxman  Island, 
and  Pelly  Mountains  behind  Pelly  Bay.  These  mountains,  or  hills,  as  a  rule, 
rise  to  a  climax  at  about  1,500  feet,  back  from  the  coast  twenty-five  to  one 
hundred  and  fifty  miles,  and  somewhat  mark  the  boundary  of  the  tundra  land? 
inhabited   by   the   Esquimaux. 

After  the  search  for  the  Northwest  Passage,  Ross  and  I-ranklin  discon- 
tinued, the  country  north  of  the  ^'ukon  was  abandoned  by  the  white  man. 
and  for  the  most  part  is  now  unknown.  The  natives  are  few,  whale  are  scarce, 
and  thus  far  the  country  beyond    I  eller  is  poor  in  mineral. 

The  district  southward  of  the  ^  ukon.  particularly  along  the  shore  and 
rivers,  was  the  trapping  ground  of  the  Russian-American  Fur  Company  until 
the    United    States    purchased    Alaska,    but    their    discoveries    were    rarely    pub- 


Iishi'd;  liowcvcr,  the  remains  of  missions,  trading  stores,  block  houses  and  the 
like,  may  still  he  seen  along  the  \  ukon  to  lorl  Yukon,  along  the  Kuskoquim 
to   Kolmakofski,   on    ihc    Nushegak.    Lake    Iliamna    and   small    rivers. 


I  he  discovery  of  this  contiiuiil,  and  breaking  u|)  of  the  narrow,  bigoted, 
Arristottolian  ideas  was  due  to  the  search  for  a  shorter  route  to  the  Orient. 
Thus  at  the  same  time  was  a  new  land,  and  more  freedom  of  thought  presented 
to  those  who  had  the  courage  to  dare  the  sea  or  church. 

Columbus,  1492;  John  Cabot,  1497;  his  son  later,  then  C  ortereal,  then 
Frobisher,  1576;  then  Drake;  after  him  Davis,  1585-8;  then  Hundon,  1617- 
10;  Button.  1612;  James  Hall,  1612;  and,  1615.  Baffin;  Fox.  1631; 
Ross  and  Parry,  1818-29  (Ross  located  the  magnetic  pole  substantially  as 
known  now)  ;  then,  overland  from  Hudson  Bay  and  Central  Canada,  went 
Hearne.  1770;  Franklin.  Beechey.  McKay.  Hood.  Mackenzie,  Richardson, 
and  others,  and  after  these  the  lamentable  Franklin  expedition  by  sea,  all  seek- 
ing a  waterway  to  the  westward. 

The  prominent  features  of  the  land  and  sea  bear  the  names  of  these  ex- 
plorers from  Teller,  Alaska,  eastward,  and  that  part  of  the  world  is  but  little 
better  known  now.  What  they  failed  to  accomplish  was  successfully  carried 
out  by  Amundsen,  1903-7,  in  the  Gejoa.  in  that  he  brought  his  ship  through 
the  "Northwest  Passage,"  and  camped  about  two  years  within  a  hundred  miles 
of  the  magnetic  pole,  and  walked  all  around  and  perhaps  over  it.  The  fact 
that  the  pole  bobs  about  a  little  and  cannot  be  fixed  at  any  one  spot,  and  that 
the  compass  refuses  to  work,  is  nothing  new.  and  but  little  knowledge  of  scien- 
tific value  was  added  by  his  sojourn.  Why  not  place  a  magnetic  station  at  or 
near  the  north  and  south  magnetic  poles  at  the  same  time,  to  determine  their 
relations,  which  would  at  least  lend  aid  for  the  solution  of  other  questions? 

Leffingwell  and  Mikkelsen  are  now  attempting  to  thoroughly  explore  and 
map  the  northeast  coasts  of  Alaska.  The  former  will  leave  Seattle  some  time 
this  month  (May,  1909)  in  the  Argo.  and  Amundsen  will  also  visit  that 
country  again.  Only  that  part  of  the  country  immediately  on  the  coast  has 
been  correctly  mapped,  and  some  of  the  large  rivers  have  never  been  explored. 
When  Heme,  in  1770;  Mackenzie,  1789;  Franklin.  1819-27,  and  others 
first  penetrated  the  unknown  Arctic  shores,  they  found  the  Indians,  who  had 
never  seen  white  men,  living  in  polygamy,  adultery,  incest  and  the  lowest 
kinds  of  immorality;  cases  of  infanticide,  witchery,  cannibalism  and  murder 
were  reported.  Instruments  and  weapons  were  of  stone,  bone,  copper,  ivory, 
and  wood.  Wives  were  talJen  and  discarded  at  pleasure.  It  was  common 
practice  to  engage  in  a  friendly  wrestling  bout,  the  winner  to  take  the  woman. 
Their  religion,  if  they  had  any,  was  vague,  although  they  had  stories  of  creation 
and  the  flood,  somewhat  similar  to  our  own.  handed  down  as  very  ancient 
traditions;   likewise  a  tradition  that  their  ancestors  came  from  the  westward. 

Along  the  Arctic  Ocean  Esquimaux,  well  mixed  with  Mongolian  blood, 
were  found.  They  had  never  seen  white  men,  and  were  as  immoral  as  the 
Indians,  but  more  charitable,  good-natured,  content,  and  friendly,  although 
inclined  to  steal  and  lie.  They  belonged  to  the  same  stock  as  the  Greenland, 
Labrador  and  Siberian  natives,  speaking  dialects  of  the  same  parent  language. 
Their  snow  igloos  in  winter  and  skin  tupecks  in  summer  were  the  same  as  of  all 
exquimaux  living  in  the  treeless  regions,  and  the  same  as  the  white  man  now 
makes  when  he  goes  into  that  country.  The  smallest  piece  of  wood  is  rarely 
found  beyond  Herschell,  where  the  last  house  of  wood  is  seen.  Implements 
for  the  house  and  chase  were  of  ivory,  stone,  copper,  horn,  shell,  and  such 
material  as  nature  afforded.     Fire  was  made  by  rubbing  wood  together,  and  seal. 


whale,  and  walrus  afforded  not  only  the  light,  cooking  fats,  and  fuel,  but 
their  bones  made  supports  for  houses  and  boats,  implements  for  hunting  and 
defense,  oranments  and  sleds.  Their  skins  were  useful  as  tent  coverings,  boats, 
boots,  rope  thongs,  dog  harness  and  the  like;  the  intestines  for  oil  and  water 
bottles  and  waterproof  clothing.  Castaway  bones,  and  skin  boots  and  clothing 
were  often  required  to  sustain  life  when  food  could  not  be  obtained.  They 
faced  death  as  stoically  as  their  Mongolian  ancestor,  and  their  religion  was 
a  matter  of  philosophy  much  the  same,  scarcely  arising  to  the  observable  status 
of  a  known  belief,  the  most  noticeable  feature  being  the  fear  of  evil  spirits,  ill- 
omen,  the  sick,  dead,  and  the  avoiding  of  certain  locations  believed  to  bring 
them  ill  luck  or  death.  They  erected  special  abodes  for  those  abandoned  to 
die,  and  never  returned  to  them;  those  dying  in  their  own  houses  were  allowed 
to  remain  there  unmolested  until  the  wild  beasts  or  summer  sun  destroyed 
them.  At  Herschell  they  place  the  dead  in  a  box,  which  sits  on  top  of  the 
frozen  ground.  The  men,  particularly  on  the  Siberian  side,  wore  glass  beads 
in  their  ears,  and  the  women  were  tatooed.  Labrettes  or  metal  and  stone  or 
ivory  ornaments  were  sometimes  worn  in  the  lips,  similar  to  the  Siwash  Indians 
on  the  Pacific  Coast.  Meat  was  sometimes  cooked  slightly,  but  more  often 
eaten  raw;  also  other  foods.  The  difficulty  of  heating  stones  with  the  moss 
and  heather  fires,  or  seal  oil,  for  the  purpose  of  throwing  them  in  skins  of 
water  to  boil  food,  or  upon  which  to  roast  meat,  was  so  difficult  that  it  was 
necessary  to  have  epicurean  tastes  that  would  conform  to  the  conveniences  of 
the  land.  At  the  present  time  some  articles  of  clothing,  food,  cooking  utensils 
and  firearms  are  obtained  from  the  whites,  and  occasionally  lumber  and  tents 
are  used  for  dwellings,  and  a  school  teacher  or  missionary  injects  a  little  edu- 
cation, and  a  miner  or  whaler  a  little  more  bad  whisky,  but  on  the  whole  the 
natives  north  of  Teller  are  but  little  changed  since  the  first  visit  of  white  men. 

Hearne  came  down  the  Copper  Mine  River  to  the  ocean,  I  770.  and  look 
possession  for  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  (England), and  Alexander  Mackenzie 
down  the  river  that  bears  his  name  to  the  ocean,  I  789,  but  neither  explored 
the  shores.  After  them  came  Franklin  and  Beechey,  who  made  the  first  notes 
on  these  shores,  but  the  notes  of  Franklin,  made  1825,  were  checked  over 
by  Thomas  Simpson,  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  1836-9,  from  Boat  Ex- 
tension to  Return  Reef  and  from  Return  Reef  to  the  Mackenzie,  and  it  was  he 
that  named  all  the  capes,  rivers,  bays,  etc..  between  Return  Reef  and  Point 
Barrow;  he  also  named  the  Franklinand  Pelly  Mountains.  Jones  Islands.  Cole- 
ville,  Gary,  and  Smith  Rivers.  St.  Clair  and  McKay  Rivers  are  named  for 
two  of  his  guides;  Cape  Simpson  is  in  honor  of  his  uncle,  the  Governor.  Dease 
Inlet  was  named  in  honor  of  Mr.  Dease.  his  companion,  and  McKenzie  Bay 
in  honor  of  a  member  of  the  fur  company  (not  the  explorer.)  Fie  took  pos- 
session of  Point  Barrow  and  raised  the  British  flag  in  the  name  of  the  king. 
These  explorations  completed  the  link  between  the  two  oceans  along  the  North- 
west Passage,  uniting  with  those  of  Cook  and  Clark  and  Kotzebue  from  the 
Pacific.  De  Fuca  lead  the  search  for  the  Northwest  Passage  from  the  Pacific 
side  in  1592.  (The  stories  of  Maldonado.  1588.  arc  said  to  be  pure  fabrica- 
tions. See  "A  Chronology  of  History  of  Voyages  Into  the  Arctic  Regions 
for  the  Purpose  of  Discovery  of  Northwest  Passage,  by  John  Barrow,  of  Lon- 
don, 1818.")  Many  other  navigators  followed,  but  to  James  Cook  is  due 
the  credit  of  exploration  to  Icy  Cape,  followed  later  by  Clark  and  K.olzcbur 
from  the  west.  August  9th.  I  779,  Cook  arrived  at  and  named  Cap  Prince 
of  Wales;  then  he  crossed  to  Siberia,  where  the  natives  politely  made  low. 
sweeping  bows  to  him;  then  back  to  Alaska  at   Pt.   Mulgrave,  and  from  there 


lo  Icy  Cape;  llu'ii  hack  lo  Cape  Lisburno;  then  across  to  Cape  North,  on  the 
Siberian  side,  and  returning  to  Norton  Sound  (all  of  which  j)oints  he  named)  ; 
thence  southward  lo  the  Sandwich  Islands,  where  Ins  useful  life  was  shortly 
afterward  taken  by  the  natives. 

I  he  Siberian  Kscjuimaux,  or  (  huckchees.  had  trade  relations  and  wars 
with  the  natives  of  Alaska,  the  beginning  of  which  is  not  known,  and  the  news 
of  the  new  world  had  found  its  way  to  St.  Petersburg  long  before  Alaska 
was  discovered.  Perhaps  a  Polish  seannan.  Dejenev,  should  have  the  honor  of 
discovering  first  the  Arctic  shores  of  Alaska,  1  648.  However,  historians  seem 
to  have  omitted  him.  But  Peter  the  Great  had  acquired  Kamtchatka  and 
desired  a  northern  waterway  along  the  north  coast  of  Asia  to  his  possession. 
to  find  which  repeated  efforts  were  made  from  the  northern  rivers  and  seas  of 
Asia,  all  of  which  failed.  Then  Bering  was  instructed.  1  728.  to  attempt  the 
discovery  of  such  passage  from  the  west,  and,  although  he  passed  through 
Bering  Straits  and  must  have  been  close  to  Alaska,  he  made  no  report  of  it. 

For  three  hundred  and  fifty  years  the  maritime  powers  of  the  earth  sought 
the  Northwest  Passage.  Fortunes  were  spent,  hundreds  of  men  perished,  and 
numerous  ships  were  losi,  but  the  most  pathetic  story  is  the  loss  of  Sir  John 

His  overland  trip  and  tin.  death  ol  Hood  has  no  parallel  on  land;  neither 
does  his  voyage  at  sea.  In  1828  he  married  a  second  wife,  Jane  Griffin;  the 
next  year  he  was  knighted  by  Kuig  George  the  Fourth ;  then  he  saw  valuable 
service  in  the  British  navy ;  he  was  then  made  Governor  of  Van  Diemans  Land ; 
returning  in  1845,  he  headed  an  expedition  in  the  Erebus  and  Terror  to  dis- 
cover the  Northwest  Passage,  although  sixty  years  old.  Captain  Crozier  was 
second  in  command;  134  men  made  up  the  party;  they  carried  both  sails  and 
coal,  and  modern  equipment  for  the  time.  They  were  seen  in  Melville  Bay, 
July  26th,  by  a  whaler,  lor  the  last  time,  frozen  fast  in  the  ice.  The  vessels 
ultimately  pushed  through  to  Beechey  Island,  on  the  north  side  of  which  they 
wintered,  1 845-6.  For  two  years  following  nothing  was  heard,  and  many 
expeditions  were  in  search  for  them  from  England,  Canada  and  the  United 
States,  and  fifteen  more  followed  in  the  next  six  years.  McClure  entered  the 
Arctic  from  the  west,  was  shipwrecked,  and  rescued  by  an  expedition  from 
the  east,  and  was  the  first  to  cross  from  ocean  to  ocean  in  the  Arctics,  re- 
ceiving a  reward  of  ten  thousand  pounds.  Lady  Franklin,  at  her  own  expense, 
equipped  an  expedition  headed  by  Forsyth,  who  returned  and  reported  that 
Franklin  had  wintered  on  Beechey  Island,  which  aroused  fresh  hopes,  and 
she  followed  it  up  unsuccessfully  with  a  second  and  third  expedition.  Then 
the  English  government  sent  a  big  expedition  under  Kellet,  McClintock,  and 
Osborn,  which  was  lost,  but  the  crew  was  saved.  Then  Kane  tried  it.  and 
others.  But  Dr.  John  Rae.  1854.  overland  from  Canada,  obtained  informa- 
tion that  about  forty  of  the  Franklin  expedition  had  been  seen  by  Pelly  Bay 
Esquimaux,  and  a  renewed  effort,  with  more  hopes,  was  made  by  the  widow  and 
friends,  headed  by  McClintock.  1857.  In  1859.  in  Bootha  Feelix  Land,  he 
obtained  relics  and  information  to  prove  the  death  of  all  the  men.  A  record 
was  found  near  Cape  Herschell,  on  King  William  Land,  telling  of  a  sledge 
trip  of  seven  of  the  men,  and  of  the  wintering  on  Beechey  Island ;  it  was  dated 
May  28th,  1847.  This  record  was  later  supplemented.  April.  1848.  by 
others  of  the  party,  saying  that  the  ships  had  been  abandoned  on  the  22nd. 
having  been  in  the  ice  since  September  12th.  1846;  that  105  of  the  crew 
were  alive,  under  Crozier;  that  Franklin  had  died  June  1  I  th.  1847.  and  that 
they  would  start  for  Backs  Fish  River  April  26th.  1848.  Subsequently  from 
time  to  time  remnants  of  the  wreck  have  been  found.  In  I  906  the  Esquimaux 
informed  Amundsen  of  the  location  of  one  of  the  boats,  or  where  it  was  de- 
stroyed.     Lady   Franklin  herself  went   as   far  as  Sitka.      Stories  of  her  sorrow 


are  still  told,  and  the  old  Russian  furniture,  pegged  together  with  wood,  in  the 
rooms  where  she  lived,  are  now  in  use,  or  at  least  we  were  informed  last  year 
that  we  were  sleeping  in  Lady  Franklin's  bed. 



The  Alaska  shore  south  of  Cape  Prince  of  Wales,  and  the  Yukon  to 
Fort  Selkirk,  were  as  thoroughly  explored  and  better  mapped  by  the  agents  of 
the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company  than  that  part  of  the  shore  north  of 
Cape  Prince  of  Wales  was  by  those  who  sought  the  Northwest  Passage,  or 
the   lost  expedition  of   Franklin   and   Ross. 

Standing  on  the  Diomede  Islands,  one  may  look  over  to  Asia  on  one  side 
and  America  on  the  other.       The  strait  is  narrow  and  the  water  is  shallow. 

The  Western  Union  Telegraph  Compan  conceived  the  idea  to  connect 
the  old  and  new  world  by  wire,  and  during  1  865-6-7  had  large  parties  of  men 
surveying  and  reconnoitering  in  the  wilds  of  both.  On  the  Siberian  side  it 
proposed  to  start  at  Irkutsk  (to  which  a  line  already  extended)  ;  thence  along 
the  Amoor,  Kamchatka  and  Anadyr  Rivers  to  Anadyr  Gulf,  or  Penti  Gulf. 
On  the  American  side  a  line  was  already  established  to  or  near  Cariboo,  British 
Columbia,  from  which  it  was  to  extend  northward  up  the  Eraser  and  down 
the  Yukon  to  Nulato;  thence  across  to  Norton  Sound  and  ending  at  Port 
Clarence.     A  cable  was  to  connect  the  two  across  Bering  Strait. 

Many  men  were  employed  and  much  work  done.  To  this  day  their 
marks  are  plainly  seen,  the  knowledge  of  the  country  and  natives  was 
preserved  by  the  Smithsonian  Institute,  printed  in  the  papers  of  the  whole 
world.  The  books  by  Wymper  and  Dall  are  even  now  the  best  early  authentic 
information  existing.  This  knowledge  of  the  country,  indirectly,  at  least, 
was  one  of  the  largest  factors  inducing  Seward  and  Congress  to  purchase 

The  company  doubted  the  success  of  Fields  Atlantic  Cable,  just  as  many 
doubted  the  utility  of  the  wireless  a  year  or  two  ago,  but  its  success  was  soon 
proven,  causing  the  company  to  abandon  its  scheme,  about  the  same  time 
Seward  purchased  Alaska. 

Captain  Beechey  extended  his  exploration  to  Port  Clarence,  1827.  .At 
that  time  the  natives  were  freely  trading  with  the  Chukchis,  of  Siberia,  as 
they  were  during  the  busy  days  of  the  telegraph  company  thirty  years  later, 
and  as  they  are  now.  There  can  be  no  question  about  the  near  blood  relation 
of  the  people  of  the  two  continents  at  this  point,  and  it  would  have  been  appropo 
to  unite  the  continents  by  wire  here.  Wireless  now  communicates  from  boat 
to  boat  and  with  Alaska  shore  stations  throughout  the  North  and  will  soon 
spread  to  Asia.  Railroad  building  is  feasible  and  profitable  in  Alaska,  and 
may  yet  extend  across  the  Bering  Strait  by  car  ferry  and  provide  an  overland 
route  from  New  York  to  Paris. 


It  has  not  yet  been  settled  whether  the  Alaska  Esquimaux  came  I  mm 
Asia  or  the  Siberian  from  Alaska,  but  it  can  not  be  disputed  that  they  ^anie 
from  the  same  original  ancestors.  It  is  also  an  irrefutable  fact  that  the  Esqui 
maux  is  either  of  Mongolian  parentage,  or  in  very  early  limes  became  lhorou«hly 
mixed  with  the  Mongolian  people.     The  former  seems  most  probable. 

The  genial,  contented  disposition  of  the  race  suggests  Norwegian  l)lood. 
but  the  predominating  Mongolian  features,  color,  customs,  traditions,  stoical, 
philosophical  religious  indifference,  overshadows  and  breaks  down  in  the  mind 
of    almost    every    investigator    all    the    ancestral    theories    e.\cept    the    Mongolian. 


This  Mongolian  Kscjumiaux  Mood  cxlonds  down  the  Asiatic  coast  to  China 
and  Japan  and  along  Northern  Siberia.  On  the  Alaskan  side  it  extends  from 
Greenland  to  the  very  end  of  the  Aleutian  Islands,  which  is  in  sight  of  the  smoke 
of  the  steamers  of  Japan,  and  also  along  the  Pacific  Coast  on  the  west  side  of 
the  mountains  as  far  south  as  Seattle  at  least.  I'he  whole  [)oi)ulation  of  Indians 
and  Esquimaux  in  America  containing  Mongolian  blood  docs  not  exceed  50.000. 

I  he  same  rate  of  decrease  applies  to  Siwash.  Aleut  and  F,sf)uimaux  wherever 
the  trader,  miner  and  whaler,  with  their  vice,  disease  and  whisky,  can  reach 
them.  In  their  Northern  home  their  whole  lives  were  devoted  to  a  food-struggle 
for  existence;  the  fish,  game,  seal,  whale,  and  walrus,  upon  which  they  depended, 
have,  by  the  white  man.  been  almost  exterminated.  At  Herschell  and  Point 
Barrow,  where  once  villages  of  500  healthy,  pure-blooded  natives  lived,  now 
a  half  hundred  syphilitic  mixed  bloods  mingle  with  as  many  whalers  each 
winter.  A  similar  condition  of  affairs  prevailed  in  Western  Alaska  during  a 
hundred  years  of  Russian  supremacy  -a  most  lamentable  thing  to  say  a^out 
our  boasted   civilization   and  Christianity. 

Of  these  people  Wymper  (page  249).  who  lived  among  them  on  both 
continents,  concludes  they  are  of  Mongolian  origin;  Markham.  that  they  are  of 
Tartar  descent;  Arctic  Miscellanies,  that  they  are  Mongolians  driven  north- 
ward by  a  more  powerful  Tartar  race;  Henry  W.  Elliott's  Report,  1875.  of 
natives  on  St.  Lawrence,  says,  "They  strongly  resemble  Chinese;"  A.  W. 
Greeley,  1885,  says  there  is  no  question  but  the  natives  of  the  two  continents 
had  trade  relations  back  in  the  Sixteenth  century;  Sessions  (page  103)  says, 
"They  do  not  look  like  our  North  American  Indians,  but  many  ot  them  look 
like  Mongolians;"  Arctic  Provinces,  by  Elliott.  "They  strongly  remind  us  of 
Japanese  faces  and  forms;"  Retzius  and  Humboldt  find  the  Pacific  Coast 
Indians  related  to  the  Mongols;  Dr.  Sheldon  Jackson,  for  many  years  among 
them,  said.  "In  mental  traits,  artistic  ideas,  and  methods  of  labor,  they  are 
singularly  like  the  Mongolian  Japanese;"  Catlin  says  the  same;  Spurr.  1896. 
says,  "They  are  wonderfully  dilTeient  from  those  on  the  Yukon  form  Nulato 
to  its  headwaters,  being  round  and  rosy,  rather  small  in  stature,  and  with  a 
certain  Mongolian  appearance  (page  260).  And  thus  I  could  continue  to  name 
authors  of  similar  opinion,  but  the  most  convincing  argument  is  that  even  per- 
sons like  myself,  who  frequently  see  Chinese.  Japs.  Aleuts,  Siwash  and  Esqui- 
maux, are  often  unable  to  distinguish  them.  It  is  not  unusual  to  find  Esquimaux 
having  every  appearance  of  a  full-blood  Jap.  In  Alaska  these  people  inhabit 
the  tundra  belt.  They  are  found  twenty  miles  up  the  Copper  Mine  River,  on 
the  Mackenzie  as  far  as  the  Peel,  on  the  Yukon  to  Nulato,  on  the  Kuskoquim 
to  Kolmakofsky.  The  Russians  carried  them  farther  inland,  and  the  Ameri- 
cans mixed  them  more.  In  the  treeless  and  woodless  country  they  built  their 
houses  of  snow  in  winter  and  skins  in  summer,  and  buried  their  dead  in  skins 
covered  with  stones  or  left  them  in  their  abodes  sealed  to  shut  out  wild  animals. 
In  the  wooded  country  or  on  shores  where  wood  could  be  found,  they  built 
houses  of  it,  and  buried  their  dead  in  boxes  covered  \\ith  stones  or  dirt,  or  erected 
upon  poles  to  protect  them  from  dogs  and  wild  animals,  as  they  did  their  food 
stores.  Everywhere  they  followed  their  game  food  from  place  to  place  in  season, 
and  more  than  half  the  Aleutian  barabaras.  Siberian  topecks.  and  .Alaskan 
igloos  found  are  unoccupied  save  for  a  few  days  each  year,  if  at  all.  Now.  as 
in  early  years,  one  may  travel  the  rivers  within  their  territory  and  find  but  a  few 
families  on  each,  with  three  or  four  exceptions.  Ornaments  may  be  found 
in  the  nose.  cars,  lips  and  elsewhere  on  the  men;  anklets,  bracelets,  tatoos  upon 
the   women. 

They  carve  Oriental  figures,  Chinese  idols,  and  money  of  very  ancient 
dates  have  been  found  buried  centuries  ago  by  them,  showing  conclusively  that 



they  were  Irorn  ihat  country  or  had  communicalion  of  some  kind  with  it  hun- 
dreds of  years  before  discovered  by  whiles.  The  small  race  living  nearest  to 
the  pole,  as  described  by  Perry,  are  almost,  if  not  altogether,  pure  Mongolian. 
1  he  similarity  of  the  hieroglyphics  from  (  haldea  traced  northward  through 
Asia,  then  through  the  l",s()uim;)ux.  Pacific  (oast  Indians,  and  down  to  the 
origmal  |X'opies  of  Mexico  and  South  America,  has  lead  several  archaeologists 
to  say  that  this  was  the  route  over  which  came  the  first  inhabitants  of  America, 
and  that  the  people  of  Mongolian  blood  in  Alaska  and  along  the  Pacific  Coast 
■are  the  remnant  of  that  people.  The  argument  is  believable  and  convincing, 
and  proofs  of  which  are  too  numerous  to  set  forth  in  this  small  book  of  con- 
clusions. I  have  been  accumulating  facts  for  several  years  on  these  questions, 
the  whole  ol  which  will  be  given  in  an  extensive  history  of  Alaska  to  be  pub- 
lished in  about  three  years  from  this  time. 

A  comparison  of  the  names  of  towns  in  C  hina,  Japan,  and  all  Esquimaux 
and  Aleut  countries  will  reveal  a  marvelous  similarity,  and  the  names  of  towns 
of  the  Siwash  and  Athabascan  will  be  as  marvelously  dissimilar. 

The  table  on  page  88  may  not  be  a  satisfactory  test,  as  some  words  are  not 
common  to  all  the  languages;  others  may  have  a  broader  or  narrower  meaning; 
none  of  them  are  phonetically  or  diacritically  marked,  and  the  number  of  words 
should  not  be  less  than  a  hundred.  However,  it  will  serve  to  convince  any  one 
that  the  Greenland.  American,  Asiatic,  Esquimaux  and  Alaskan  Aleut  derive 
their  dialects  from  a  common  ancestral  language,  and  that  the  Japanese  language 
is  so  similar  in  many  ways  that  we  are  justified  in  concluding  that  at  some  period 
the  parent  language  was  the  same  or  closely  associated.  I  am  fully  convinced 
that  a  comparison  of  dialects  from  Bering  Strait  to  Japan,  and  a  careful  research 
along  the  Coast,  would  corroborate  my  statement. 

The  table  on  page  88  will  also  show  that  the  ^  ukon  Indians  have  a  lan- 
guage in  nowise  related  to  the  others,  and  that  the  Haidah  (or  Siwash)  are  as 
distinctly  separate. 

The  fact  that  the  Siwash  has  the  face  and  features  of  a  Mongolian  and 
Esquimaux  more  than  of  any  other  human  being,  and  yet  has  no  similarity  in 
speech,  makes  it  more  difficult  to  place  his  ancestry. 

A  Negro  in  Africa,  and  another  in  America  having  a  common  parent,  or 
a  Japanese  in  Japan  and  another  in  Alaska  having  been  born  in  the  same  house- 
hold, but  acquiring  from  the  beginning  different  languages,  which  is  often  and 
can  easily  have  been  the  case  many  times,  will  be  an  illustration  of  how  language 
may  fail  to  disclose  ancestry.  Several  cases  of  lost  or  shipwrecked  Japanese 
have  been  reported,  where  they  have  drifted  entirely  across  the  Pacific,  in  one 
of  which  almost  a  hundred  years  ago,  a  Japanese  junk  landed  near  Puget  Sound. 
In  such  cases  the  blood  could  become  mixed  without  the  language  becoming 


Polar  Auroras  are  of  two  spheres,  those  ol  the  north,  known  as  Aurora 
Borealis,  and  of  the  south  as  Aurora  Australis.  I  will  refer  to  those  of  the 
north  only. 

The  Aurora  has  been  classified  and  subdivided  by  many,  but  after  all  it 
is  but  a  matter  of  degree  or  extent. 

For  practical  purposes  it  may  be  divided,  first  including  those  extending 
far  south  and  manifesting  more  magnetic  and  electric  force;  and  last,  those  of 
less  height,  more  local  and  producing  little  or  no  magnetic  or  electrical  dis- 

Almost  a  hundred  authors  have  written  as  many  different  theories  as  to 
what  the  Auroras  are  and  their  cause,  etc.,  including: 


First — Divine.  They  have  frightened  the  human  race  for  all  ages,  and 
history  is  full  of  ghost-like  tales. 

Second — Polar  ice  radiating  at  night,  the  light  absorbed  during  the  day. 
(Disproven  by  the  polariscope,  showing  that  they  are  direct  and  not  reflected 
rays. ) 

Third — The  movement  ol  polar  ice  upon  which  the  sun  reflected.  (Also 
disproven. ) 

Fourth — Phossophoriscent   light. 

Fifth — Luminous  gases. 

Sixth — Foggy  weather  near  the  poles. 

Seventh — Same  as  sun  halos.       (Refuted  by  polariscope.) 

Eighth — Caused  by  sun-spots.  (This  theory  has  many  more  advocates 
than  most  of  the  others,  although  the  Auroras  have  occurred  so  adversely  to  the 
sun-spots  some  years  that  they  seem  to  prove  no  reliable  cause.) 

Ninth — Magnetic  forces.  To  which  many  tenable  reasons  can  be  as 
signed,  such  as  the  effect  upon  the  magnetic  needle:  the  origin  or  home  of  the 
Auroras  being  generally  in  the  vicinity  of  the  magnetic  pole  (westerly  side  ol 
Smith  Straits  and  north  of  Bafflns  Bay,  as  first  located,  or  96  degrees  west  of 
Greenwich  and  70  degrees  north  latitude  on  Boothia  Felix  Land,  as  fixed  by 
Amundsen,    1906). 

Tenth — Foreign  neobula  or  meteoric  substance  coming  into  our  atmos- 
phere, being  magnetized,  electrified,  or  illuminated.  (A  moment's  thought  by 
any  student  will  cnoclusively  disprove  such  theory.) 

Eleventh — Light  from  other  and  far  distant  planets. 

Twelfih — Light  upon  cirius  or  snow  clouds  in  very  high  altitude. 

Thirteenth — Electricity,  (of  which  many  actions  of  the  Aurora  remind 
the  observer) ,  has  many  modern-day  advocates. 

1  o  all  who  have  watched  the  Aurora  generally  appearing  from  and  re- 
tiring to  the  vicinty  of  the  magnetic  pole;  moving  the  magnetic  needle  (to  my 
knowledge  as  much  as  ten  degrees  in  one  instance)  ;  disturbing  telegraph,  tele- 
phone, cable  and  wireless,  as  well  as  other  magnetized  or  electrified  apparatus, 
the  theory  that  the  Aurora  is  closely  connected  with  electricity  and  magnetism 
will  be  accepted. 

Only  the  great  Auroras  extend  far  south,  and  the  magnetic  and  electric 
force  is  more  noticeable  (possible,  however,  because  we  have  more  instruments 
to  affect  and  men  to  report),  than  in  the  Alaskan  country. 

The  magnificent  Auroras  of  1859  and  1872  are  the  only  ones  on  record 
to  my  knowledge  that  seemed  to  extend  from  pole  to  pole,  and  actually  covered 
the  whole  earth. 

As  a  rule  they  are  seen  but  about  once  in  Gulf  of  Mexico,  five  times  in 
San  Francisco  and  ten  in  Dakota  per  year,  while  east  of  the  mountains  of  Alaska 
and  the  Arctic  Sea  they  are  observed  about   100  limes  annually. 

Whalers  and  Arctic  explorers  have  reported  them  still  more  frequent 
nearer  the  magnetic  pole. 

Ihe  Alaskan  Pacific  Coast  and  Aleutian  Islands  are  so  continually  clouded 
over  that  the  Auroras  are  infrequently  seen  there. 

Explorers  in  the  far  north,  above  the  magnetic  pole,  report  the  Auroras 
as  coming  from  the  south.  Others  wintering  near  the  magnetic  pole  report  them 
as  being  so  low  as  to  have  been  observed  shining  under  the  clouds,  and  as  ap- 
pearing from  various  points  of  the  compass. 

Frequently  the  clear  Alaskan  night  reveals  a  sight  that  fills  the  ob.iervcr 
with  awe.  We  know  the  warming,  cheerful  effect  of  the  sun,  the  fright  and  fear 
of  the  storm  and  lightning,  the  amazement  of  the  mirage,  the  dread  of  the  vol- 
cano and  earthquake,  and  even  of  the  moons  silent  influence. 


But  tlu-  Alaskan  Aurora  brings  forth  the  genuine  goose-pimplc.  hair-raising, 
reverential  feeling  that  all  other  phenomena  connbined  can  not  produce. 

Clouds  of  light,  waves  of  light,  oceans  of  light,  ripples,  flames,  darts, 
chains,  snakes,  and  halos  of  light;  ultra-violet,  whitish-yellow,  green,  purple, 
and  flame-ligc  light. 

Light  that  enables  you  to  read  at  night,  dims  the  the  stars,  threatens  to  fire 
the  earth,  the  heavens,  and  to  stick  its  darts  of  lightning  into  you. 

You  can  see  battles  as  it  advances  and  retreats.  You  think  of  Milton's 
Paradise  Lost,  Dante's  Inferno  and  the  threats  of  dire  and  awful  punishment 
of  the  wicked  as  pictured  to  you  by  the  old  testament  or  expounded  by  some 
out-of-date,  self-made  preacher.  If  to  all  these  the  light  and  beauty  of  the 
Glorified  Throne  as  seen  or  related  by  John  the  Revelator  could  be  added,  then 
the  scene  could  hardly  excel  the  actual  sight  of  one  of  these  Great  Auroras,  made 
greater,  grander  and  more  effective  by  the  long  night,  lonesome  camp,  frost- 
locked  and  silent  environments  of  this  Arctic-like  land,  Alaska. 

As  you  look  with  open-mouthed  awe,  every  <"'p<"^  is  so  alert  that  you  hear 
its  electric  spark  snap  (or  think  you  do),  feel  's  liirusts  of  lightning  (or  think 
you  do).  Then  it  disappears  (or  you  t'liiiK  it  does),  but  instantly  it  comes 
again,  until  by  the  indescribable  panoramic  fire,  one  is  hypnotized  almost  into 
ar.lnc;   existence. 

While  Mr.  Hall  was  wintering  in  Frobisher  Bay,  near  the  magnetic  pole, 
he  witnessed  an  Aurora  which  he  describes  in  his  "Arctic  Researches"  as 
follows : 

"Then  I  tried  to  picture  the  scene  before  me.  Piles  of  golden  light  and 
rainbow  light,  scattered  along  the  azure  vault,  extended  from  behind  the  western 
horizon  to  the  zenith ;  thence  down  to  the  eastern,  within  a  belt  of  space  20 
degrees  of  width,  with  fountains  of  beams,  like  fire  threads,  that  shot  with  the 
lapidity  of  lightning  hither  and  thither,  upward  and  athwart  the  great  pathway 
indicated.  No  sun,  no  moon,  yet  the  heavens  were  a  glorious  sight,  flooded 
with  light.  Even  ordinary  print  could  have  been  easily  read  on  the  deck. 
Flooded  with  rivers  of  light.  Yes.  flooded  with  light.  And  such  light!  Light 
all  but  inconceivable.  The  golden  hues  predominated.  But  in  rapid  succession 
prismatic  colors  leaped  forth.  We  looked,  we  saw,  and  trembled ;  for.  even  as 
we  gazed,  the  whole  belt  of  the  Aurora  began  to  be  alive  with  flames.  Then 
each  pile  or  bank  of  light  became  myriads ;  some  now  dropping  down  the  great 
pathway  or  belt,  others  springing  up,  others  leaping  with  lightning  flash  from 
one  side,  while  more  as  quickly  passed  into  the  vacated  space;  some,  twisting 
themselves  into  folds,  entwining  with  others  like  enormous  serpents,  and  all  these 
movements  as  quick  as  the  eye  could  follow.  It  seemed  as  if  there  was  a  struggle 
with  these  heavenly  lights  to  reach  and  occupy  the  dome  above  our  heads.  Then 
the  whole  arch  above  became  crowded.  Down,  down  it  came ;  nearer  and 
nearer  it  approached  us.  Sheets  of  golden  flame,  coruscating  while  leaping  from 
the  Auroral  belt,  seemed  as  if  met  in  their  course  by  some  mighty  agency  that 
turned  them  into  the  colors  of  the  rainbow,  each  of  the  seven  primary,  three  de- 
grees in  width,  sheeted  out  to  twenty-one  degrees;  the  prismatic  bows  at  right 
angles  with  the  belt.  While  the  Auroral  fires  seemed  to  be  descending  upon  us. 
one  of  our  number  could  not  help  exclaiming,  'Hark!  Hark!  Such  a  display! 
Almost  as  if  a  warfare  was  going  on  among  the  beautious  lights  above — so  pal- 
pable, so  near — seems  impossible  without  noise.'  But  no  noise  accompanied  this 
wonderous  display.     All  was  silence." 

And  again  Mr.  Hall  says: 

"But  the  northern  lights,  in  their  eternally  shifting  liveliness,  flame  over 
the  heavens  each  day  and  each  night.  Look  at  them ;  drink  oblivion  and  drink 
hope  from  them ;  they  are  even  as  the  aspiring  soul  of  man — restless  as  it. 


"They  will  wreathe  the  whole  vault  of  heaven  with  their  glittering,  fleeting 
light,  surpassing  all  else  in  their  wild  loveliness,  fairer  than  even  the  blush  of 
dawn,  but  whirling  idly  through  empty  space  they  bear  no  message  of  a  com- 
ing day. 

"The  sailor  stears  his  course  by  star.  Could  you  but  concentrate  yourselves, 
you,  too,  O  Northern  Lights !  might  lend  your  aid  to  guide  the  bewildered  wan- 
derer. But  dance  on  and  let  me  enjoy  you.  Stretch  a  bridge  across  the  gulf 
between  the  present  and  the  time  to  come,  and  let  me  dream  far,  far  ahead  into 
the  future. 

Oh  thou  mysterious  radiance!  What  are  thou  and  whence  comest  thou? 
\  et  why  ask?  Is  it  not  enough  to  admire  thy  beauty  and  pause  there?  Can  we 
at  best  get  beyond  the  outward  show  of  things?  What  would  it  profit  even  if 
we  could  say,  that  it  is  an  electric  discharge  or  current  of  electricity  through 
upper  regions  of  air,  and  able  to  describe  in  minutest  detail  how  it  all  came  about, 
it  would  be  mere  words.  We  know  no  more  what  the  electric  current  really  is. 
than  what  the  Aurora  Borealis  is.  And  happy  is  the  child.  *  ^  ^  '^e 
with  all  our  views  and  theories  are  not  in  the  last  analyses  a  hair's  breadth  nearer 
the   truth    than   it." 

Although  this  is  Mr.  Hall's  statement  a  half  century  ago,  so  far  as  the 
Aurora   is   concerned,   it  could  be   made   now. 

In  the  land  of  Seward,  every  Alaskan  who  remains  over  winter  witnesses 
the  long  night,  the  midnight  sun,  the  clear  air,  the  frost/  stillness,  the  peculiar 
moon  and  that  awful  monotonous  loneliness  and  if  he  returns  with  unimpaired  rea- 
son will  corroborate  what  I  have  said  about  the  Alaskan  Aurora  and  add  that  no 
pen  can  fully  and  justly  describe  it,  nor  can  any  artist  but  the  God  of  the  Uni- 
verse paint  such  a  picture. 

The  Aurora  is  not  the  only  awe-producing  phenomena  of  Alaska.  1  he 
Creator  of  the  long  night  provided  a  great  silver  moon,  and  a  big  red  sun  three 
or  four  times  larger  than  they  are  down  in  the  States  and  seemingly  so  close  that 
one  is  almost  afraid. 

The  feeling  that  enrobes  one  while  a  death-like  silence  pervades  every- 
thing in  a  lonely  land,  and  the  thermometer  registers  sixty  below  or  the  mercury 
is  frozen,  can  be  experienced,  but  not  told. 




Wire  telegraph  and  telephone  lines  are  few  and  ot  a  short  or  local  kind ; 
the  cable  extends  only  along  the  Pacific;  mail,  on  the  river  boats  in  summer  and 
over  the  long  trails  in  winte,  is  often  delayed  for  weeks,  and  Alaska  remains 
connected  to  the  outside  world  by  the  rapidly  spreading  wireless  telegraphy. 

The  government  has  been  very  negligent  in  many  respects  concerning 
Alaska,  but  in  respect  to  the  wireless,  it  has  been  diligent  in  reaching  remote 
corners  far  ahead  of  private  means  of  communication  of  a  like  kind,  so  that 
powerful  transmitting  stations  are  fixed  at  Nome,  Ft.  Gibbons,  Circle,  Eagle. 
Chena,  St.  Michael,  on  the  interior,  and  at  many  points  on  the  coast.  This 
service  supplemented  with  the  overland  wire  from  Valde/.  and  the  cable,  as 
well  as  an  overland  wire  through  Canada,  gives  inestimable  aid  to  a  winter-im- 
prisoned people.  The  abreviated  press  dispatches  in  midwinter  are  very  welcome 
indeed.  The  breaking  of  ice  on  the  rivers  and  sea.  shortage  of  provisions,  orders 
for  machinery,  and  all  matters  of  haste  may  be  dispatched  to  the  coast  by 

The  signal  corps  men  have  undergone  all  the  tortures  known  to  Arctic 
winters  at  35  cents  per  day  while  erecting  and  maintaining  the  land  wires  so 
necessary  in  the  outset. 

The  established  land  wires  now  begin  at  Valdez,  running  to  Gulkana 
where  one  branch  goes  northeast  to  Eagle  and  the  other  northwest  to  Chena : 
thence  down  the  Tanana  and  Yukon  to  St.   Michael. 

The  wireless  apparatus,  as  it  becomes  more  perfect  and  is  increased  in 
power,  reaches  farther  so  that  now  messages  are  frequently  intercepted  over  two 
tiiousand  miles  from  the  transmitter. 

Night  IS  better  than  day,  and  \vinter  beter  than  summer  lor  wireless  com- 
munication, therefore  Alaska  is  abundantly  supplied  with  the  natural  aids. 

A  number  of  aid  stations  are  being  prefected  on  the  interior  of  Alaska,  and 
a  more  powerful  station  at  Valdez.  When  the  entire  scheme  has  been  carried 
out,  government  and  private  business  may  be  carried  on  at  all  limes  by  the 
world  with  Alaska  by  wireless. 

The  wireless  link  with  the  outside  world  will  be  an  assurance  ol  communi- 
cation, as  at  no  time  could  it  be  expected  that  the  Canadian  land  line,  the  Paciiu 
cable  line  and  the  Wireless  would  be  out  of  service  at  the  same  time. 

The  expense  in  erecting  and  keeping  in  repair  long  lines  of  land  wire  throUj;!i 
an  uninhabited  country,  the  awful  exposure,  and  the  delay  in  case  of  bre.^ks 
will  be  avoided  by  the  wireless. 

The  thanks,  congratulations  and  admirations  ol  the  world  arc  due  to  the 
men  doing  the  work  and  the  department  having  it  in  charge. 

The  patronage  pays  well  for  the  investment,  but  as  the  country  justihvs, 
the  United  Wireless  follows  with  its  system  and  the  government  generously  tur'is 
over  the  paying  private  business  to  it.  1  he  United  Wireless  Company  lias  its 
instruments  on  land  along  the  coast  and  on  ships  at  sea.  At  the  present  time 
almost  every  boat  on  the  ocean,  engaged  in  Alaska  trade,  is  equipt  wi»h 



I.vcry  one  inleresled  in  this  peninsula  should  obtain  a  copy  of  E.  H. 
1  larrison's  Nome  and  Seward  I'eninsula.  which  is  the  best  publication  existing 
( oncerning  the  vicinty  of  Nome. 

First,  the  Russian  traders  and  missionaries,  then  the  whalers,  followed  by 
the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company,  broke  the  unnumbered,  undisturbed 
and  unimportant  years  of  monotonous  I'.squimaux  possession  of  Seward  I-*eninsula. 
There  were  small  native  settlements  here  and  there  at  the  most  protected  points, 
but  nothing  extraordinary  happened  until  September,  1 898,  when  E.  O.  Lind- 
blom,  John  Byrnteson  and  Jafet  Lindberg  discovered  gold  in  paying  quantities 
on  Anvil  Creek,  a  dozen  miles  back  of  Nome.  I  he  whole  world  had  the  gold 
fever  because  of  the  fabulously  rich  strikes  in  the  Klondike,  and  the  reports  of 
this  discovery  caused  the  rush  of  Skaguay,  Valdez  and  Dawson  to  be  repeated 
or  excelled  at  Nome  in  1 900,  when  it  arose  from  a  pile  of  ice  to  a  tent  city 
of  twenty  thousand  unorganized,  bewhiskered  stampeders. 

Although  Nome  has  no  harbor,  yet  the  ocean  commerce  of  that  port  from 
June  to  October  is  tremendous.  Gold  has  been  found  in  the  sea,  on  the  shore, 
in  the  creek  beds,  on  the  benches  and  everywhere. 

More  claim  jumping,  bribery,  and  perjury  occurred  around  this  camp  than 
any  other  of  the  kind  in  the  history  of  the  world.  The  court  records,  involv- 
ing clients,  attorneys,  judges,  marshalls  and  receivers,  present  the  blackest  picture 
in  the  history  of  the  common  law. 

Few  of  the  wrongdoers  received  legal  punishment,  but  many  forfeited  their 
lives,  or  gambled  their  ill-gained  fortunes  away,  and  it  is  seriously  hoped  that 
the  others  will  purchase  nothing  but  misfortune  with  theirs.  A  very  large  per 
cent  of  those  having  courage  enough  to  face  danger  and  death  in  search  of 
claims  were  Scandinavians,  than  whom  there  are  no  more  honest  and  hard  work- 
ing people  on  the  face  of  the  earth,  nor  are  there  any  who  so  feebly  defend  their 
own  rights.  These  were  usually  the  victims.  Their  only  shame  is  that  some  of 
their  own  race  helped  to  rob  them.  The  combmed  flames  of  Hadeas  would  not 
be  hot  enough  for  a  just  punishment  to  the  human  devil  who  robbed  or  attempted 
to  rob  an  honest,  hard-working,  good-natured  Swede.  Jack  London  and  Rex 
Beach  may  exaggerate  some  features  of  Alaska,  but  they  could  not  do  this  one 
justice.  The  list  of  disgraced  and  discharged  officers,  court  records  and  informa- 
tion of  clients  and  friends,  convinces  me  beyond  a  shadow  of  a  doubt  that  I  am 
not  overstating  the  case.  The  Guggenheims  may  pay  less  than  some  of  their  is 
worth,  but  they  can  feel  proud  that  they  did  not  steal  any  of  it  or  cover  the  court 
records  with  perjury  for  it,  as  has  been  charged  to  some  others. 

Enough  gold  has  been  taken  from  Anvil  Creek  alone  to  repay  the  purchase 
price  of  Alaska,  and  every  year  enough  is  taken  from  this  peninsula  to  repay 
the  purchase  price  of  Alaska.  In  all  approximately  fifty  millions  of  dollars  in 
gold  has  been  taken  out,  and  but  a  scratch  has  been  made.  Some  of  the  most 
valuable  mines  were  discovered  in  the  least  expected  places,  and  so  in  the  future 
any  one  may  find  millions  under  the  water-soaked  tundra.  The  gold  is  practically 
all  placer.  The  future  will  reveal  its  mother  lode.  It  contains  a  very  little  sil- 
ver. Some  soft  coal  is  found,  and  prospects  of  tin  at  York  and  Teller.  Cape 
Mountain  and  Ear  Mountain  are  granite  intrusions,  in  which  tin  has  been  located, 
and  if  the  tin  locations  depend  on  similar  formations  they  will  be  confined  to 
these  mountains  for  the  reason  that  such  intrusions  are  very  infrequent  here; 
however,  the  geological  agents  of  the  government  advise  a  further  search  in  the 
slates.  Perhaps  a  hundred  thousand  dollars  \vorth  of  tin  has  been  mined  and 
the  prospects  are  now  fair  for  American  tin. 

Along  the  beach  are  a  number  of  villages  consisting  of  a  half  dozen  shacks, 
and  a  mission  (and  at  one  time  a  native  town  hall),  including  Shishmaref,    i  ork, 



ALASKA    Lkm;     I-KAM 

I  ellei,  Tin  City,  Cheenik,  Bluff,  Dickson,  and,  inland.  Council  C  ity,  C  andle 
City,  D?hl,  Noxapaga,  Hot  Springs,  Igloo  and  a  large  number  of  mining 
camps.  Many  of  these  places  are  numerously  populated  in  the  active  season. 
Nome  iias  about  five  thousand  in  winter  and  ten  thousand  population  in  summer, 
i  here  are  many  gigantic  undertakings  in  this  district.  In  1902-3  the 
Co'.  r.cil  City  &  Solomon  River  Railway,  and  Seward  Peninsula  Railway  were 
commenced.  The  former,  starting  at  Nome,  has  been  e.xtended  to  Lamb's  Land- 
ing, about  seventy  miles,  and  the  latter  up  Solomon  River,  half  that  distance. 
Ditches,  almost  as  long,  carrying  water  over  divides,  around  mountains, 
from  one  stream  to  another,  wind  like  threads  all  over  the  land  and  furnish  the 
greatest  assistance  for  procuring  the  gold.  Titanic  steam  shovels,  dredges  and 
hydraulic  lifts,  horse  scrapers,  common  sluice  boxes,  long  toms,  rockers  and  hand 
panning  add  their  share.  In  winter,  during  the  long  night,  light  and  water  is 
not  needed  by  those  burrowing  deep  into  the  earth  by  a  process  of  fire  thawing  or 
steam  thawing,  and  the  dirt  is  piled  high  at  the  mouth  of  the  tunnel  or  shaft,  to 
be  washed  with  the  first  available  water  in  the  spring. 

Mil  •.MCI  ri'  SIX  .\v  .\<i.Mi-; 


The    following    comparison    ol     native    dialects    will    be    of    some    help 
tracing  the  Mongolian,    Esquimaux  and   Indian: 






































1    Tin-jah 















1    Drinnszih 

Shi  nor 

































Keeiij  Ilk 


Sen   nil 

1    Chiiieh 







1    Che    zhik 






Kifrnl  it 












1  'nil...- 





Its  lia 



)ee  page 





Here  is  a  domain  so  large  that  whole  mining  states  like  Colorado,  and 
agricultural  states  like  Minnesota  can  and  will  in  time  be  carved  out  of  it.  It  is 
a  country  of  magnanimous  proportions — the  longest  night  and  day,  largest 
mountam,  largest  moon,  most  beautiful  sun,  coldest  temperature,  umold  wealth 
and  many  other  superlatives. 


If  it  IS  true  that  a  man  six  leet  tall  may  look  over  the  level  plain  hiteei, 
miles  at  which  point  the  horizon  will  meet  it,  then  the  ^  ukon,  in  many  places, 
is  more  than  fifteen  miles  wide,  and  at  springtime  it  is  a  real  ocean  with  num- 
erous bays  and  islands.  It  is  one  of  the  largest  rivers  in  the  world.  The  ^'ukon 
heads  in  Canada,  known  as  Lewes  river  and  has  a  length  of  2,044  miles,  the 
whole  of  which  with  every  creek  and  tributary  forms  a  system  of  commercial 
highways  for  the  interior.  Much  of  the  country  is  low,  the  banks  muddy,  and 
the  mud  is  washed  about  forming  islands  and  mud  banks  and  changing  the 
course  of  the  channels  (of  which  there  are  many)  and  a  lot  of  it  goes  to  fill 
up  the  Bering  Sea.  The  mouth  is  about  a  hundred  miles  wide,  the  Aphoon  or 
northern  mouth,  being  the  channel  used  for  commerce,  the  entrance  to  which  is 
75  miles  southward  from  St.  Michaels,  the  present  fort  and  wireless  station. 
For  years  it  was  the  most  important  Russian  post  in  northern  Alaska,  the  rem.iins 
of  which  are  still  to  be  seen.  Between  Norton  Sound  and  the  ^  ukon  was,  and  is, 
a  numerous  native  population  who  have  many  advantages  over  their  Arctic  kins- 
folk, because  of  the  wood  obtainable  for  numerous  uses  and  abundance  ol  fish 
and  game  and  less  rigorous  climate.  Small  villages,  missions  and  trading  stores 
are  numerous,  the  same  being  true  of  the  Yukon  as  far  at  least  as  Nulato.  So 
much  has  been  written  of  this  district  and  it  is  so  well  known  that  I  forgoe  a  re- 
petition of  its  interesting  history. 


The  Koyukuk,  a  river  rising  near  the  northeast  corner  oi  Alaska,  has  been 
overlooked  since  the  days  of  the  Russian  and  Hudson  Bay  trapper,  until  about 
a  year  ago.  Numerous  reports  of  paying  gold  in  placer  and  quart/  have  re- 
cently been  made.  The  annual  production  is  about  $150,000.  Last  summer 
I  met  a  large  number  of  miners  on  their  way  in  to  Coldloot,  Betlles.  Allakakal 
and  other  points  on  the  river,  some  of  them  a  thousand  miles  by  the  way  ol  the 
river  and  trails  from  the  confluence  of  the  Koyukuk  and  ^  ukon.  Boats  run 
up  as  far  as  Bettles  and  poling  extends  to  Coldfoot.  I  his  is  not  the  only  un- 
developed river,  to  the  north  of  it  are  many  large  rivers  flowing  to  the  Arctic 
yet  unmapped.  And  to  the  west  the  Noatak  and  Kobuk  empty  into  Kot/eliuo 
Sound,  all  heading  in  the  EndicotI  range. to  which  the  iiexl  stampede  ma\ 
be   made. 


The  activity  on  the  Kuskokwim  was  also  well  repaid  last  year,  and  fl.itlerinv 
reports  are  awaited  from  those  who  wintered  on  the  river. 

The  western  side  of  the  Alaska  range  is  drained  bv  its  tributaries  through 
a  country  wild,  unknown  and  abounding  in  game. 

89<  kivi-.k 

III  1907  another  "rush"  was  made,  this  timi-  to  Big  Creek,  about  75 
miles  over  the  divide  from  (oldfoot.  Big  Creek  is  one  of  the  upper  branches  of 
the  Chandalar  river.  In  winter  about  a  hundred  men  work  by  means  of  steam 
l)()ilers  and  in  summer  jierhaps  two  hundred  others  are  added,  the  annual 
output  may  be  $100,000.  Boats  from  ^  ukon  ascend  the  Chandalar  a  hundred 
miles,  from  which  the  camp  is  easily  reached. 

One  of  the  first  to  take  a  boiler  into  that  country,  in  telling  me  his  experience 
said:  "It  was  so  cold  in  winter  that  he  was  required  to  remove  the  water  from 
the  boiler  as  soon  as  he  stopped  firing,  and  that  the  water  would  freeze  and 
burst  the  boiler  if  he  filled  it  before  he  started  the  fire.  But  if  he  built  the 
fire  first  he  would  burn  the  boiler,  consequently  he  was  obliged  to  build  a  slow- 
fire  and  fill  the  boiler  as  the  fire  started. 


1  his  affluent  of  the  ^'ukon  is  one  of  the  oldest  trails  in  Alaska.  The 
natives,  Russians  and  Hudson  Bay  trappers  passed  over  it  winter  and  summer  as 
the  highway  between  Ft.  McPherson  on  the  Peel,  and  Ft.  Yukon.  At  the 
present  time  there  are  several  trappers  and  indians  along  the  river  in  winter, 
perhaps  twenty-five,  but  no  miners.  Whalers  and  traders  from  Herchel  come 
down  the  Porcupine  by  the  way  of  Dease  river  or  Rat  river  and  La  Pierr's 
House,  600  miles  to  Ft.  Yukon. 


The  tale  of  the  rush  to  the  Innoko,  1906-7,  from  Fairbanks  over  300 
miles  of  winter  snow  by  I  200  miners,  less  than  half  of  whom  reached  the  diggins. 
IS  frequently  told  by  the  participants,  and  is  exciting  enoug  w-ithout  adding 
exageration.  The  Innoko  has  two  mouths  emptying  into  the  Yukon  sixty  miles 
apart.  The  gold  is  coarse  and  a  half  million  dollars  is  expected  out  of  the 
spring  cleanup.  Transportation  is  the  difficulty  in  the  way  of  success,  hreight 
charges  are  $400  per  ton.  Flour  is  now  $25  for  a  hundred  pounds.  This 
is  a  peculiar  country,  the  bed  rock  is  from  four  to  forty  feet  from  the  surface, 
the  banks  of  the  rivers  are  low  and  a  boat  drawing  eighteen  inches  of  water  can 
not  get  within  two  hundred  miles  of  the  mines  on  Gains  creek  and  up  the  Deetna. 
Perhaps  the  most  convenient  route  would  be  up  the  Kuskoquim  crossing  a  portage 
of  less  than  ten  miles  between  James  Creek  and  the  Innoko.  Small  boats  push 
up  the  Innoko  on  the  spring  freshets,  but  to  step  off  with  a  ton  or  more  of  freight 
upon  the  mud  flats  among  the  misquitoes,  would  require  the  last  ounce  ot  the 
bravest  miner's  courage.  Poling  up  the  remainder  of  the  way  over  the  tortuous 
course  would  consume  so  much  time  that  the  better  part  of  the  season  would 
be  over  before  work  could  be  started.  In  winter  the  camp  can  be  reached  in  a 
three  day's  "mush"  from  Kaltag.  A  large  number  remained  on  the  river  last 
winter  and  the  cleanup  now  will  be  eagerly  watched. 

The  rocks  of  the  country  are  slaty  and  the  formations  are  very  different  from 
those  of  the  Yukon,  Tanana  and  other  river  camps. 

A  road  for  winter  and  summer  use  should  be  made  at  once. 

The  rushes  or  stampedes  to  Forty  Mile,  Sixty  Mile,  Dawson  and  Atlin 
are  closely  related  to  Alaskan  history,  likewise  the  river  and  trails  from  the 
coast  range  passes  to  Eagle,  but  inasmuch  as  the  one  hundred  pages,  to  which 
we  are  limited,  are  far  insufficient  for  the  briefest  possible  histor\-  of  Alaska,  we 
must  omit  all  outside  territory  and  much  of  interest  within  our  boundary. 


The  gold  output  ol  the  Tanana, ^ukon  district,  now  approximates  fifty 
million  dollars,  of  which  the  vicinity  of  Fairbanks  produces  two-thirds. 


The  gold  seems  to  originate  in  two  formations,  one  of  metamorphic  schists. 
the  other  in  greenstones.  The  elements  of  ages  have  been  collecting  the  particles 
in  the  creek  bottoms,  benches  and  gorges  from  which  the  placer  miner  has  taken 
about  all  the  gold  produced.  In  this  territory,  as  in  all  others,  the  mother  lodes 
are  sought  after  the  placers  have  been  worked,  and  paying  rock  has  already  been 
located.  In  a  country  so  rich  it  may  be  expected  that  modern  machinery,  like 
Treadwell,  will  soon  be  at  work  here. 

Boats  in  summer  almost  daily  go  up  the  I  anana,  and  with  the  aid  of  a 
railroad,  supply  the  mining  district   from  the  boast  on  the  ^'uLon. 

Fairbanks  and  Chena  are  busy  places  all  the  year  through,  the  former 
named  in  honor  of  Vice-President  Fairbanks,  of  Indiana,  who  has  done  more 
than  any  other  one  person  for  Alaska.  Ex-President  Harrison  and  Senator 
Beverage,  also  of  that  state,  have  the  honor  of  being  loyal  advocates  of  Alaska's 
needs  in  the  past. 

Alfred  H.  Brooks  and  his  able  assistants  in  the  department  of  geological 
surveys  have  blazed  the  rocks  pointing  out  the  gold  and  mineral  prospects  in 
new  districts,  just  as  plainly  as  Major  Richardson  has  blazed  the  trees  alon« 
the  trails  leading  to  them.     To  all  unsinted  praise  should  be  given. 

The  laws,  government  and  administration  of  Alaska  affairs  and  its  courts 
have  been  unsatisfactory  in  general,  and  at  limes  neglected,  abandoned  or 
fraudulently  applied.  Fhe  smae  difficulty  may  be  again  and  again  expected  as 
long  as  Alaska  is  governed  from  Washington,  D.  C. 

Alaska  has  always  been  a  kind  of  "football"  kicked  about  by  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company,  Russian  American  Fur  Company,  Alaska  Commercial  Com- 
pany and  various  departments  at  Washington,  without  any  regard  for  cen- 
serving  its  resources,  but  rather  for  getting  all  out  of  it  possible  and  putting 
nothing  back  in  return. 

The  congressional  delegation  ol  the  Stale  of  Washington,  and  the  commer- 
cial organizations  of  Seattle,  have  assumed  the  leadership  in  the  attempt  to  ob- 
tain relief  in  the  matters  of  governmental  improvement,  and  already  increased 
appropriations  and  attentions  have  been  extended. 

The  products  of  Alaska  have  approxmiated  $300,000,000.  Its  exports  for 
1908  were  $36,000,000.      Its  total   trade  with  the  states  $46,000,000. 

It  possesses  more  undeveloped  Gold,  Coal  and  Copper  than  any  olher 
state  or  country;  its  climate  is  superior  to  Northern  Asia  or  Europe;  i(  has  fish 
enough  for  the  whole  world,  and  its  agricultural  possibilities  are  great. 

FOR  r  ^'UKON. 

Fort  Yukon  was  located  in  1847,  on  Russian  territory,  at  ihr  coiitluniK- 
of  the  Porcupine  with  the  Yukon  by  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  lor  which  it 
paid  rent  to  the  Russian  Fur  Company.  1  he  Fort  was  destroyed  by  the  Indians 
once,  and  has  been  moved  and  rebuilt  several  times.  It  is  a  hundred  miles 
farther  north  than  Nome.  Here  the  Alaska  traveler  is  north  of  the  Arctic  circle. 
an  opportunity  rarely  enjoyed  by  tourists.  Volumes  have  been  written  con- 
cerning the  experience  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  Russian  .American  Fur 
Company  and  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company  from  Ft.  Selkirk  to  the 
mouth  of  the  ^  ukon.  Going  down  the  river  from  Ft.  Selkirk.  Ugilvie.  at  the 
confluence  of  the  famous  Sixty  Mile  creek,  Dawson,  the  metropolis  of  the  Klon- 
dike, about  one-third  as  large  as  in  the  boom  days.  Eagle  on  the  line.  Forty  Mile 
on  the  gold  creek  by  that  name,  Circle.  Ft.  ^'ukon.  Ft.  \  lamlin.  Rampart. 
Tanana,  Ft.  Gibbons.  Nulalo,  Klaltag,  Anvil,  Holy  Cross.  Ikogmul.  .Andreafski 
are  the  important  stations,  more  than  half  ol  which  have  been  known  for  two- 
thirds  of  a  century. 



Admirally   Island  25     28 

Agriculture  24.  36.  63.  66 

Alaska.    Boundary   of  |  (^    24 

Alaska,    Discoveries  of  3  7.  41.    73.    76 

Alaska.    Maps   of  4,    3 

Alexandrian    Archipelago  |  8 

Alaska    Peninsula    65 

Alert   Bay  14 

Alaska   Steamship  Co I8 

Aleuts  63 

Aleutian    Islands  65 

Anvil  Creek       86 

Arctic   Coast   69 

Aurora    Borealis  80 

Baranov     1 2,    34 

Baskets    48     59 

Bella   Bella '    |  5 

Berries 36 

Beners   Bay   '. /6 

Behm    Canal    21 

Bering  Sea  69,    72.    73 

Bering 41.    72,    76 

Bristol   Bay 65.  69 

Brady,   Rev.  John  G 41.   42 

Bogslof   Island   Created 68 

Canoes 49.    53 

Cape   Prince   of   Wales 73 

Cape   Suckling    . 41 

Cape   Fenshaw 25 

Cable    _ o4 

Cassair  23 

Chilkoot  Pass 29 

Chirkoff    37 

Chilkat   Blanket  60 

Chinook  49 

Chandlar,    R "......".90 

Chicagof  Island  36 

Chena V I 

Cleveland    Peninsula 21 

Clarence,  St 21 

Copper   Center  43.   63 

Copper   Mine  River  , 73 

Copper 41.  42.  43 

Copper   River  Country  41    to  44 

Copper   Mountain    22 

Coal .12.  25.  41.  44,  66 

Coronation.    I.. 25 

Commerce    9,    91 

Comptroller    Bay 41 

Cordovia  , ^\ 


Cooks  Inlet  Country  .  44 

Crater   Lake      31 

Cross  Sound   37 

Dalton     Trail    2tt 

Devils  Thumb   24 

Dixon  Entrance T5   to    18 

Discoveries  on  Pacific    9.  10.   il.   12,   13.   14.  15.  28.  39.  37.  40.  41 

Discoveries  Among  Aleutian   Islands  70 

Discoveries  in  Arctic  Seas  72  to  77 

Discoveries  on   ^  ukon 77 

Dionmede,   I., 72,    77 

Douglass,    I.,    26 

Duncan  Canal  24 

Dora 45 

Dyea    29 

East  Cape 73 

Elemar 44 

Esquimault  16.    34 

Esquimaux  73   to  80 

Fairbanks  91 

Farragut,    B. 24 

Fish  and  Fur 7.  9.  14.  48.  62.  66.   71 

Eraser,    R 10 

Frederick  Sound 24.   25 

Fort    Yukon  .  91 

Gold  9,  21,  23,  25.  26,  28,  36.  42,  86.  89.  90,  91 

Gold  Creek  26.  28 

Georgia  Gulf    II.    12 

George  Inlet  21 

Glaciers  24,  25.  28.  30.  37,  39 

Gravana,    I.,    2 1 

Hadley 22.    23 

Haines    .  29 

Hamilton   Bay   21 

Helm    Bay   21 

Hecta.  St 13 

Hawkan    .  ll 

Hoonah    37 

Hudson    Bay   Co.  16.    23 

Innoko  90 

Indian  Wars  ..  8,    19,  25.   28.    M,    37 

Indians   on    Canadian   Coast  I  4 

Indians   on  Prince  of  Wales  Island  -  I 

Indians   on  Pacific  Coast  .40,   45    to  6! 

Indian  Chiefs  8.    19.    34.  46 

Indian   Population   46.50 

Indian  Legands.  Slaves.  Music.   Marriages.  Religion.  Canoes.    Burrials, 

Feasts.  Totems.  Baskets.  Blankets,  etc..  see  50  to  61 

Icy    Cape    37 

Inside  Passage  .  •*.    / 

Iskut.  R 21 


Japanese  Current  65 

Jaun  dc  Fuca,  Slr.iils  9 

Juneau  26.   27.   28 

luiii-.ui    (iold    licit  26 

kales    Needle  24 

Kalalla    4! 

Kayat   r.  41 

Kenai    44 

Kelcliikan  IH 

Killisnoo  L^ 

King  I.,  72 

Knight's   I..    44 

Kot/ebue    Sound    69 

Kui   I '. 25 

Koykuk   -: 89 

Kupreanof    I.,  25 

Kuskokwim    89 

La   Perouse   39 

Latouche   44 

Lake    Linderman    31 

Lituya.    B 39 

Loring    19 

Lynn  Canal  28 

Mackenzie,  Alexander  10,    (5.   73 

Mackenzie.    R 73 

Marble  ^ ^ 11 

Metlakathla   • .19 

Missions  19.  35,  36.  46 

Mt.    Baker  10.    1  I 

Mt.   St.  Augustine  37 

Mt.    Fairweather    5l 

Mt.   Crillion 37 

Mt.  St.  Elian  37.  38 

Mt.    Edgcomb 35 

Mt.    Sumdum      25 

Mt.    Iliamma       37 

Mt.    Wrangell     37 

Mt.    McKinley  37 

Mountains  ,. 37.   67.   69,   86 

Nanaimo .12 

Navigation  62 

Norton   Sound    77 

Nome    .86 

North  West  Passage  40,  44,   73  to  77 

Nootka  12.    16 

Oil  41.  46 

Porcupine    R.. 90 

Potlatch  54 

Port  Etches  .  .44 

Population 44.  50.  65,   78 

Port  Clarence  , 77 

Port   Townsend  .9 


Point   Barrow  73 

Prince   Rupert      13 

Prince  of  Wales  Island  21 

Prince   Williams   Sound 41 

Priblof    Islands    69 

Puget  Sound   .  9 

Queen   Charlotte  Sound  and   Islands  13 

Railroads  33.  40.  41    to  44.  87 

Ravens    36 

Reynolds  42 

Rivallagigedo  and  other  Islands 20 

Rocks    25 

Russians  23.  34.  40.  41.  44.  70 

Russian   American   Fur  Co 23 

Salmon 9,  10,  17.  18.  19.67 

Seal    - 70.    7  I 

Sea    Lion 71.    72 

Seward    Peninsula 86 

Seward,   Ft.   William  H 29 

Seward    43 

Seward    City    28 

Seattle 3.    7.   8 

Seattle,   Chief   8 

Sheep  Creek  ^6.   28 

Shamen    34 

Schools 61 

Sitka    34    to    37 

Skaguay  32 

Skeena  River  21.  25 

Sledge    I..  72 

Snettisham  2() 

Sopy   Smith  32 

St.   Lawrence  »'2 

Stephens   Pass    24 

Stikine,  R 21.  23.  24.  25 

Sports :>6 

Sussitna  R.,  44 

Tanana    ''" 

Tattoosh    I..    ^^ 

Taku   R..   21.    25 

Teslin    23 

Tides  44 

Timber    62 

Tm   8(, 

Thorn  Arm  ...  20 

Tongass   Narrows  ^  1 .    24 

Totems  12,  55.  56,  37 

Trials  .     2\,  28.  28 

Treadvvell  26.  27.  It*' 

Tyee    13 

Unuk   R..  21.    23 


Vancouver,    CJror><«' 

Vancouver     Island 





Western   Union    I  el.   Co.   Scheme 

White  Pass  &  Yukon  R.   R. 



Wireless  Telegraphy  

Wrangell   and   Wrangell   Narrows 

^  ukon 

Zarembo  23 














9  6  9      S  "^ 

THF    I  I  NIVF  P?<^!TV    I    IDD/VDV 



This  book  is  DUE  on  the  last  date  stamped  below. 



7-4  4.-0 



>  S  1968 




75      i 

.^^  .2  198Q 


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